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Renewable Energy Law and Policy Week 7: Community energy solutions Tam Hunt Energy Program Director/Attorney Community Environmental Council A good beginning "The public discussion accompanying [deregulation] ... is another example of what I call barbell policy debates. At one end is a glut of arcane articles in specialized journals written by policy wonks for their peers. At the other extreme is a raft of simplistic, focusgrouptested slogans that reduce complex choices to bumper strips." Denis Hayes from the Foreword to Seeing the Light, by David Morris The debate heats up... "A serious debate about the kind of power rules needed for the 21st century is definitely in order. But the terms of that debate should not be defined by a few large suppliers and a few large producers and centered on customer choice of suppliers. Rather, we need a full blown debate about the kind of electricity system we want. "One hundred years ago, at the dawn of the 20th century, we had such a debate. It lasted a generation and resulted in a hybrid electricity system onethird owned by customers and twothirds owned by investors." David Morris, Seeing the Light What are community energy solutions? Energy solutions that don't require direct state or federal involvement Long history of communitybased electricity Why community energy solutions? What do women want from a relationship? Ditto for community energy solutions, generally speaking For our purposes, what CEC wants is renewable electricity and energy efficiency Control Control Control Types of community solutions Local government partnerships Southern California Energy Efficiency Partnership (SCEEP) is our local energy efficiency LGP ( www.southcoastenergywise.org) Redwood Coast Regional Energy Authority Ventura County Regional Energy Alliance Regional energy authorities Community Choice Aggregators Greenfield developments Municipal utilities (MOUs or POUs) Our methodology: CEC's "A New Energy Direction" Our plan in brief: Quantify where we can Qualify where we must Think both shortterm and longterm Energy efficiency and conservation Hybrid cars and biofuels Renewable electricity Next generation vehicles Energy Efficiency and Conservation Up to 50% of our business as usual petroleum demand could be saved by 2030 Up to 30% of our BAU building energy demand could be saved by 2030 Alternatives to driving, such as walking, biking, buses, trains, land use More efficient cars can save huge amounts of fuel 2030 Challenge seeks carbon neutrality for all new buildings and retrofits by 2030 CFLs, LEDs, double pane windows, better wraps, etc. Hybrids and biofuels Hybrid cars are technically a type of energy efficiency Hybrid car sales are on a tear: Up from 10,000 in 2001, to about 250,000 in 2006 > about a 76% annual rate of increase There are now 15 hybrid models available We separate them out in our "plan in brief" b/c of the degree to which they can change our energy demand today At least 9 more models available by 2008 Hybrids and Biofuels Biofuel use is also growing at exponential rates Ethanol production has grown from 1.6 billion gallons per year in 2000 to almost 5 billion gallons per year in 2006 Biodiesel production has grown from 2 million gallons per year in 2000 to about 250 million in 2006! Ethanol is 5.7% of every gallon of gas sold in California This could go to 10% very quickly Cannot currently build ethanol fuel stations in CA Biodiesel can be used today in many vehicles, particularly heavy duty vehicles Renewable Electricity This forms the lion's share of our plan after efficiency and conservation We project that wind, solar, biomass and ocean power could supply up to 90% of our TOTAL energy demand by 2030 Wind power Growing incredibly fast as an industry 35% in 2006 in the US and about 30% annually for the past six years Also the cheapest form of renewable electricity, as low as 3 cents per kWH (but often higher) Intermittency problems are being worked on Denmark obtains about 20% of its electricity from wind power An 83 MW wind farm is being permitted at a site near Lompoc Solar power Most useable form of renewable power for the "regular person" b/c it can be placed on rooftops or in your yard Solar hot water Solar photovoltaics Passive solar design Concentrating solar power (CSP) Still relatively expensive for solar PV for homeowners, but coming down California PUC approved in 2006 $3.2 billion in new funding for solar PV, solar hot water and CSP! CSP has tremendous promise Three major CSP farms proposed for SCE, SDG&E, PG&E, at 850, 900 and 500 MW, Ocean power Potentially tremendous source of energy Intermittent like wind and solar, but hopefully less so Also will face difficulties of marine environment Our region has over 3.5 gigawatts of potential in the waves alone Scotland has a goal of 10% ocean power by 2010 Just a few projects operating worldwide, but very promising Biomass/Waste to energy Also known as conversion We're including biomass electricity and heating in this category Major benefit: baseload power capacity (nonintermittent) Probably not a large source of electricity, but also solves landfill problems and may be used to create vehicle fuels like ethanol A 12 MW project has been proposed for Tajiguas, which already has a 3 MW plant that uses landfill gas Geothermal Not clear yet what resources we have in our region Potentially solid "base load" generation (like waste to energy) Currently the largest portion of CA's renewable electricity portfolio (5% of 11% renewable) Courthouse "ground source heat pump" > passive geothermal Next Generation Vehicles Three types of vehicles we see as promising: All three of these will require large amounts of electricity! So we can "electrify" the transportation sector and significantly reduce our petroleum demand Electriconly vehicles Plugin hybrid vehicles Hydrogen vehicles Electric-only Vehicles EV1, RAV4 EV, Ranger EV: firstgeneration electriconly vehicles (EVs) None of these are available today There are many "neighborhood electric vehicles" (NEVs) available Companies like Tesla Motorcars are developing fullfunction EVs today Not fullfunction vehicles But only cost $1015,000 The Roadster is slated for production this year Tesla is also planning a $60,000 sedan EV Plug-in Hybrids Plugin hybrids (PHEVs) have huge promise b/c they combine the best of both worlds: GM plans to have its Volt PHEV ready by 2010 12 Increased fuel efficiency and lower emissions of an EV ... ... with the greater range of an internal combustion engine (gasoline or diesel) ... but, they admit that battery technologies will have to improve significantly before they can do this Not to mention... GM's Volt ... it's ugly as all hell! Hydrogen Vehicles Two types: Hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) Like today's cars, but can also run on liquid hydrogen Some PHEVs are planned as hydrogen ICEs Easier to adapt the technology, but no where near as efficient as... Essentially, a fuel cell is a chemical battery that converts hydrogen into electricity Hydrogen is a "carrier," not a "source" of energy, at least as it occurs naturally on Earth The best way to get hydrogen is to electrolyze water But if you're using electricity, it makes much more sense to simply use that electricity in an EV or PHEV b/c of conversion losses going from water to hydrogen to electricity Back to renewable electricity... How do we get massive amounts of renewable electricity in our county? Currently, SCE is at 17% PG&E is at 13% The state's goal is 20% by 2010 and 33% by 2020 We describe Community Choice as "the closest thing to a silver bullet" available to our county b/c it can get us to far higher levels of renewables Briefly on Community Choice Community Choice allows local governments to take control over generation of power Investorowned utilities retain control of transmission and distribution Community Choice Aggregators (CCAs) can choose to build OR buy generation Most will choose to buy immediately and then build generation facilities over time Cost savings from public money, lack of profit requirement, and no taxes paid, are passed on to consumers So where are we on our plan?
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- Summer '07
- Renewable Energy