ESM 297 Week 10

ESM 297 Week 10 - ESM 297 Week 10 Int'l RE Law and Policy...

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Unformatted text preview: ESM 297 Week 10: Int'l RE Law and Policy Int'l energy policy front and center re climate change China just announced its action plan on climate And so did the US... And so did the EU... The International View Today's discussion: China UK Germany And then a comparison to the US China 20 years ago China today World Bank now estimates about 170,000 deaths in China each year from air pollution China's renewable energy policy China has announced goals to install 30 GW of wind by 2030, and 5 GW by 2010 They currently have by far the world's largest installed capacity for solar hot water > about 75% of the world's total Also have a lot of hydro and are almost done with the controversial Three Gorges Dam This will be 22.5 GW > enough for 22 million CA-size homes and enough for over 100 million Chinese-size homes In 2004, 16% of China's electricity came from hydro (second only to Canada in terms of quantity) Additional dams on the Yellow River will produce another 16 GW China's renewable energy and efficiency goals The 11th 5 Year Plan calls for: China committed to achieving 10% renewable electricity by 2020 (excluding big hydro) The dirty underbelly: China is investing big in nuclear and coal plants and petroleum demand is skyrocketing as bikes give way to cars A 20% reduction in energy intensity by 2010 Lawrence Berkeley Lab describes China's EE program: "a well funded program of investments in costeffective energy-efficiency projects." And China's equivalent of CAF standards is quite stringent: 43 mpg by 2008 (for cars) Int'l auto fuel efficiency United Kingdom UK's renewable energy policy UK is part of the EU, so there are two sets of goals/obligations UK just released its updated energy "white paper": "We are determined to become a low-carbon economy." A 25% below 1990 levels reduction in greenhouse gases is possible by 2020, with policies recommended in the white paper Projects 30-35 GW of new electricity capacity required by 2027 UK Energy Policy Key elements of the White Paper strategy: Establish an int'l framework for climate change mitigation and strengthen the EU Emissions Trading Scheme Recommend including aviation in the ETS Draft bill requires a 60% reduction over 1990 levels by 2050 and a 26-32% reduction by 2020 Establish legally binding targets for UK Make further progress in liberalizing int'l energy markets Encourage better energy efficiency "The starting point for our energy policy is to save energy" Supports the EU goal of 20% efficiency savings by 2020 Considering making zero energy homes mandatory by 2016 Recommends an EU target of 100 gCO2/km by 2012 (as part of the Low Carbon Transport Innovation Strategy) UK Energy Policy More key elements: Provide more support for low-carbon technologies "Renewables Obligation" requires 10% renewables by 2010 (up from 4% in 2007) With "an aspiration" to double this by 2020 Also require 5% renewables-based liquid fuels for transportation by 2010-2011 > the "Renewable Transportation Fuels Obligation" Ensure the right conditions for investment Find that achieving all these goals would result in a 0.3-1.5% reduction in GDP by 2050 Germany's renewable energy policy Germany Germany is the fifth largest oil user in the world And Germany currently gets almost half its electricity from coal Some more encouraging stats: Much of this comes from Russia, as does their natural gas These figures have continued growing since 2005 at even higher rates Wind power grew 2000% from 1990 to 2005 Biomass power grew 500% And solar power grew 15,000% Germany's energy goals 21% renewable electricity by 2010 This is the EU goal Germany is currently at about 10% renewables Also the EU goal 20% reduction in total energy use by 2020 Germany's feed-in tariff The Bundestag passed the Renewable Energy Law in 2000 This is a "feed-in tariff," which guarantees a price utilities must pay to producers over a 20 year period This provides market certainty for producers and purchasers alike The issue is: is it the cost-effective approach? With solar receiving 51 euro cents/kWh, it's quite expensive Germany's feed-in tariff Wind only gets 8.5 euro cents/kWh This is known as "banding," where different renewables get different subsidies Same technologies get different subsidies based on quality of the resource > higher-grade resources (like a good wind site) get lower subsidies This law, and its predecessor (enacted in 1990) generally get most credit for spurring Germany's huge run-up in renewables over the last decade Germany's feed-in tariff Results: Compare and contrast: China Gov. type Developed? RE investment index (E&Y) Per capita energy use (TOE) Policy pref. UK Const. monarchy Yes Germany Federal republic Yes US Const. fed. republic Yes Communist state No 60 (6th) ~1.1 State-led 62 (5th) 4.9 Hybrid 63 (4th) 4.1 Hybrid 72 (1st) 8.4 Market-led Action plans for climate change mitigation EU (including Germany and UK): 20-30% cut in GHGs below 1990 levels by 2020 Germany, current leader of the G8, is calling for a 50% reduction by 2050, which it believes is necessary to keep warming at no more than 2 degrees Celsius China: no absolute caps, but committed to a 20% energy intensity improvement by 2020 US: no absolute caps, energy intensity goal of 18% by 2012; 20% reduction in petroleum use by 2017; "aspirational" long-term goals (i.e., non-binding) Tam Hunt: 963-0538, x. 122, [email protected] 2007 Your company name ...
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