Chapter%201%20Outline

Chapter%201%20Outline - Chemistry 101 Vandan Desai Chapter...

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Chemistry 101 Vandan Desai 1 Chapter 1: Atoms and Elements – Building Blocks of Chemistry (Lecture Outline) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I. Chemistry is important for anyone studying the sciences A. Chemistry is a science that studies the composition and properties of matter B. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass 1. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in a sample (units of grams ) 2. Weight refers to the force with which an object of a given mass is attracted by gravity C. Chemistry holds a unique place among the science because all things are composed of chemicals D. A knowledge of chemistry will be valuable whatever branch of science you study II. The scientific method helps us build models of nature A. Chemistry is constantly changing as new discoveries are made by researchers B. Scientific Method is a commonsense approach to developing or understanding of natural phenomena 1. Collect data and facts 2. Formulate a hypothesis 3. Plan/experiment – test the hypothesis 4. Modify hypothesis C. Begins with a question about nature 1. Examine work of others to search for answers 2. As knowledge grows, plan our own experiments D. Observations – statements that accurately describe something we see, hear, taste, feel, or smell 1. Must be the same no matter who the observer is 2. Other should be able to repeat and confirm the observations 3. Don’t need revisions when additional data becomes available E. Conclusions – statements that are based on what we think about a series of observations (interprets the observations) F. Empirical Facts – we learn them by observing some physical, chemical, or biological system (referred to as data ) G. One of the goals of science – organize facts so that relationships or generalizations among the data can be established 1. Scientific law – concise statement or equation that summarizes tested hypotheses 2. Often expressed in the form of math equations 3. Only states WHAT happens (not WHY) H. Theoretical Models – mental pictures that enable scientists to explain observed laws I. Hypotheses – tentative explanations formed when developing theoretical models 1. Tested by performing experiments 2. If incorrect … model modified with the new data 3. If correct … theory – tested explanation of the behavior of nature a) Broad with many implications b) Never absolutely sure theory is correct J. Atomic Theory 1. All chemical substances are composed of tiny particles – atoms
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Chemistry 101 Vandan Desai 2 2. Individual atoms combine in diverse ways to form more complex particles called molecules 3. Representation of molecules: a) Using chemical symbols and lines for “connections” b) A 3-D ball-and-stick model – angles in the model are accurate c) A 3-D space-filling model III. Properties of materials can be classified in different ways A. Characteristics or properties
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2008 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Taracarpenter during the Spring '08 term at UMBC.

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Chapter%201%20Outline - Chemistry 101 Vandan Desai Chapter...

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