9-IE-11-Feb-08

9-IE-11-Feb-08 - Due date 2nd assignment: Wednesday, 20...

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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 9 – February 11 Due date 2 Due date 2 nd nd assignment: Wednesday, 20 February, 10:00am assignment: Wednesday, 20 February, 10:00am Reading for Wednesday, 13 February: Reading for Wednesday, 13 February: Materials in the Economy: Material Flows, Scarcity, and the Environment Materials in the Economy: Material Flows, Scarcity, and the Environment Lorie A. Wagner, USGS Circular 1221, 2002, USGS, Denver, CO (is posted on course website)
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 9 – February 11 Pulp and paper Absorbent gel LDPE film PP fabric Tapes, elastics, adhesives Raw cotton Cotton fabric Disposable diaper Reusable diaper Diaper use Diaper use Diaper laundry Diaper landfill Diaper landfill Case study: Disposable versus reusable diapers Case study: Disposable versus reusable diapers 43% 27% 7% 23% Other materials
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 9 – February 11 Case study: Disposable versus reusable diapers Case study: Disposable versus reusable diapers Background: Background: • When Proctor & Gamble (P&G) launched Pampers disposable diapers in the 1960s, it was considered to be the product breakthrough of the decade. • By the early 1990s, Pampers contributed over 18% to the company’s annual revenues. • It also became a symbol of the ‘throw-away’ society and was targeted by NGOs. of both types of diapers to settle the debate. The Life Cycle Asessment: The Life Cycle Asessment: Arthur D. Little researchers started by defining a functional unit and the resulting reference flows. They made the following simplifying assumption • The number of daily diaper changes is the same for both types of diapers. Based on the reference flows life cycle inventories for both product systems were calculated. The following assumption was made: • 90% of all reusable diapers are laundered at home. Response: Response: • As a response to Arthur D. Little’s results, Greenpeace commissioned its own LCA. Here are the results of both studies:
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 9 – February 11 Results from Study A 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Raw materials (lbs) Energy (10,000Btu) Water (10gal) Emissions to Air (lbs/10) Waste water effluents (lbs/100) Process waste (lbs) Post- consumer waste (lbs) Disposable Reusable Functional unit: Weekly diaper needs Functional unit: Weekly diaper needs Case study: Disposable versus reusable diapers Case study: Disposable versus reusable diapers
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 9 – February 11 Results from Study B 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Raw materials (lbs) Energy (1000Btu) Water (gal) Emissions to Air (lbs/100) Waste water effluents (lbs/100) Process waste (lbs) Post- consumer waste (lbs) Disposable Reusable Functional unit: Weekly diaper needs Functional unit: Weekly diaper needs Case study: Disposable versus reusable diapers Case study: Disposable versus reusable diapers
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This note was uploaded on 08/06/2008 for the course ESM 282 taught by Professor Geyer during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

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9-IE-11-Feb-08 - Due date 2nd assignment: Wednesday, 20...

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