10-IE-13-Feb-08-web

10-IE-13-Feb-08-web - Internship Opportunity: Who:...

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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 10 – February 13 Reading for Wednesday, 20 February 2008: Reading for Wednesday, 20 February 2008: Geyer & Jackson (2004) Supply Loops and Their Constraints: The Industrial Ecology of Recycling and Reuse, Cal Man Review, 46(2): 55-73 Davis et al. (2007) Time-dependent MFA of iron and steel in the UK, Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 51(2007): 118-140 (both posted on course website) Internship Opportunity: Who: ArcelorMittal (World’s largest steel producer) Environment, Life Cycle & Materials Department Where: Metz, France
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 10 – February 13 Industrial metabolism: Materials as Industrial metabolism: Materials as food food and and waste waste of the economy of the economy Commodity supply Production and manufacturing Use Environment Recycling Reuse Collection Post-consumer waste Manufacturing waste Production waste Landfill and other disposal Releases to air, land, water Renewable and nonrenewable material resources
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 10 – February 13 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 1902 1922 1942 1962 1982 2002 Primary lead production in the USA year Production in metric tonnes
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 10 – February 13 Primary and secondary lead production in the USA 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 1902 1922 1942 1962 1982 2002 year Production in metric tonnes
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 10 – February 13 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 1,400,000 1,600,000 1,800,000 2,000,000 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Apparent consumption of lead in the USA Consumption in metric tonnes
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 10 – February 13 Transformation process Material inputs Energy inputs Wastes & emissions Useful outputs Thermodynamics Thermodynamics and Material Flows in the Economy and Material Flows in the Economy 1. Law of Thermodynamics: 1. Law of Thermodynamics: Conservation of energy In non-nuclear processes energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Energy can only be transformed from one form into another. The total amount of energy input to a non- nuclear transformation process is thus equal to the total amount of energy output. Conservation of mass The total mass of material inputs into a (non-nuclear) material transformation process is equal to the total mass of material outputs. Conservation of mass per chemical element The total mass of each chemical element is conserved during every (non-nuclear) material transformation process.
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 10 – February 13 1. Law of Thermodynamics: Quantity of energy during transformations stays the same. 1. Law of Thermodynamics: Quality of energy decreases during transformations (what matters is exergy not energy). 2. Law of Thermodynamics Short form: In a closed system, entropy (disorder) will increase with time until it reaches its highest possible value.
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10-IE-13-Feb-08-web - Internship Opportunity: Who:...

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