Chapter%203%20Outline - Chemistry 101 Vandan Desai Chapter...

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Chemistry 101 Vandan Desai P a g e | 1 Chapter 3: Measurement (Lecture Outline) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I. Measurements are quantitative observations A. Observations can be qualitative or quantitative : 1. Qualitative observations are non-numerical; they ask “ what 2. Quantitative observations are numerical; they ask “ how much B. Measurements: 1. Always involve a comparison 2. Require units 3. Involve numbers that are inexact (numbers in mathematics are exact ) 4. Include uncertainty ( error ) due to the inherent physical limitations of the observer and the instrument used (to make the measurement) II. Measurements always include units A. Chemists use SI units for measurements, which are based on the metric system B. All SI units are based on a set of seven measured base units : Measurement Unit Symbol Length meter m Mass gram g Time second s Electric Current ampere A Temperature Kelvin K Amount of Substance mole mol Luminous Intensity candela cd C. Derived units involve a combination of base units, including D. Base units are frequently too large or small for a measurement E. Decimal multipliers are used to adjust the size of base units, including: 1. mega = 10 6 , kilo = 10 3 2. deci = 10 -1 , centi = 10 -2 , milli = 10 -3 , micro = 10 -6 , nano = 10 -9 , pico = 10 -12 F. You may encounter non-SI metric system units , including: G. English and Metric units are related using conversion factors H. glyph1197eed to Know: 1. All SI units and prefixes 2. Common English conversions (12 in. = 1 foot) 3.
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