3-IE-23-Jan-08

3-IE-23-Jan-08 - Life Cycle Assessment Industrial Ecology...

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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 3 – January 23 Life Cycle Assessment
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 3 – January 23 What is a Product Life Cycle? What is a Product Life Cycle? Raw materials mining Primary materials production Component manufacture Product distribution Product maintenance Product disposal Service Supply Chain Product Life Cycle The boxes are process groups called life cycle stages (system components). The arrows are economic material flows (relationships between system components)
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 3 – January 23 Life cycle thinking as a systems approach Life cycle thinking as a systems approach Definition of system: Definition of system: An organized assembly of components that are united and regulated by interaction or interdependence to accomplish a set of specific functions. The system itself is separated from its environment by the system boundaries. Most systems are open, i.e. they interact with their environment. Production waste and emissions Transport and distribution waste and emissions Use and maintenance waste and emissions End-of-life waste and emissions Raw materials mining Primary materials production Component manufacture Final product assembly Product use and maintenance Product disposal Service Materials Energy Materials Energy Materials Energy Materials Energy Materials Energy Materials Energy
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 3 – January 23 Life cycle assessment terminology (ISO 14040:2006) Life cycle assessment terminology (ISO 14040:2006) economic process economic process economic process economic process Functional unit Functional unit Elementary flows (e.g. resource extractions) – input flows Elementary flows (e.g. resource extractions) – input flows Elementary flows (e.g. emissions to air) – output flows Elementary flows (e.g. emissions to air) – output flows Economy-environment system boundary Economy-environment system boundary Intermediate flow Intermediate flow Intermediate flow Product system Product system
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Industrial Ecology – Winter 2008 – Session 3 – January 23 History and definition of Life Cycle Assessment History and definition of Life Cycle Assessment Definition of LCA Definition of LCA according to ISO 14040: LCA is a technique […] compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a product system; evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with those inputs and outputs; and interpreting the results of the inventory and impact phases in relation to the objectives of the study . Late 1960s, first Resource and Environmental Profile Analyses (REPAs) (e.g. in 1969 Coca Cola funds study on beverage containers) Early 1970s, first LCAs (Sundström,1973,Sweden, Boustead,1972, UK, Basler & Hofmann,1974,Switzerland, Hunt et al.,1974 USA) • 1980s, numerous studies without common methodology with contradicting results • 1993, SETAC publishes Guidelines for Life-Cycle Assessment: A ‘Code of Practice’
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3-IE-23-Jan-08 - Life Cycle Assessment Industrial Ecology...

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