Chapter%205%20Outline

Chapter%205%20Outline - Chemistry 101 Vandan Desai Chapter...

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Chemistry 101 Vandan Desai P a g e | 1 Chapter 5: Reactions Between Ions in Aqueous Solutions (Lecture Outline) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I. Special terminology applies to solutions A. Solution – homogeneous mixture in which two or more components mix freely B. Solvent component present in the largest amount; medium into which the solutes are mixed or dissolved i. Water is a typical and very common solvent ii. Solvent can be in any physical state – solid, liquid, or gas C. Solute – any substance dissolved in the solvent; can be solid, liquid, or gas D. Concentration – ratio of the amount of solute either to the amount of solvent of to the amount of solution (can be any units but grams is preferred) E. Percentage concentration – ratio of grams of solute per 100 g of solution F. Relative amounts of solute and solvent are often given w/o specifying actual quantities i. Dilute solution – ratio of solute to solvent is small; relative terms ii. Concentrated solution – ratio of solute to solvent is large; relative terms G. Saturated solution – at its present temp, solution that cannot dissolve any more solute H. Solubility – described by the number of grams of solute that dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature to make a saturated solution i. Solubility to solute increases as the temperature increases ii. More solute can be dissolved by heating the mixture I. Unsaturated solution – solution that contains less solute than required for saturation J. Supersaturated solution – solution that contains more solute than required for saturation at a given temperature i. Unstable ii. Can only be prepared if there are no traces of undissolved solute left in contact with the solution iii. If even a tiny crystal of the solute is present or is added, the extra solute crystallizes K. Sometimes when a reaction is carried out in a solution, one of the products that forms has a low solubility in the solvent i. As this substance forms, the solution becomes highly supersaturated and the substance separates from the solution as a solid, which we call a precipitate ii. A reaction that produces a precipitate is called a precipitation reaction II. Ionic compounds conduct electricity when dissolved in water A. Many ionic compounds dissolve in water B. Solutes that produce ions in solution are called electrolytes b/c their solution can conduct electricity C. An ionic compound dissociates as it dissolves in water i. Ions separate from solid and become hydrated or surrounded by H 2 O molecules ii. Ions move freely and solution is able to conduct electricity D. Ionic compounds that dissolve completely are strong electrolytes E. Most solutions of molecular compounds do not conduct electricity and are called nonelectrolytes i. The molecules of a nonelectrolyte separate but stay intact ii. The solution is nonconducting because no ions are generated F. Some ionic compounds have
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2008 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Taracarpenter during the Spring '08 term at UMBC.

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Chapter%205%20Outline - Chemistry 101 Vandan Desai Chapter...

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