Final Exam Educational Psychology Review - Final Exam Educational Psychology Review Chapter 12 Motivation in Learning and Teaching Motivation Motivation

Final Exam Educational Psychology Review - Final Exam...

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Final Exam Educational Psychology Review Chapter 12: Motivation in Learning and Teaching Motivation Motivation: internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behaviour - What energizes and directs our behaviour? o 5 basic questions Choices, getting started, intensity, persistence, thoughts and feelings o Traits (individual characteristics) vs. states (temporary situation) - Two types of motivation- classic distinction o Intrinsic motivation: motivation associated with activities that are their own rewards Positive outcomes, best type of motivation o Extrinsic motivation: motivation created by external factors (rewards & punishments) What the activity will gain us, negative emotions, poor academic achievement - Locus of Causality: the location (internal or external) of the cause of behaviour o Not two ends of continuum, instead two independent possibilities o Better way to think about it is one continuum for internal and one continuum for external adds for more complexity General Approaches to Motivation - Behavioral approaches to motivation o Reward o Incentive - Humanistic interpretations of motivation o Emphasize personal freedom, choice, self-determination, and striving for personal growth o To motivate means to encourage people’s inner resources - Cognitive views on motivation o People are viewed as naturally active and curious, searching for information to solve personally relevant problems - Social cognitive theories of motivation o Expectancy X value theories Any of these 0, you wont have any motivation o Some add the element of cost energy required, other behavioral options, risks associated with failure - Sociocultural conceptions of motivation o Emphasize participation in communities of practice where people engage in activities to establish their identities and interpersonal relationships o Identity within a group o Legitimate peripheral participation
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o Eventually develop central participation- much more important Humanistic Theories - Overview of humanistic psychology - Interested in the spiritual, emotional make up of people - Third force- critical of two perspectives o Behaviourism (Watson, Skinner) Thought behaviourism likened humans as robots, computers, o Psychoanalysis (Freud) Thought they focused too much on maladaptive behaviours, should focus on healthy behaviours instead Humanistic’s wanted to look at whole, not breaking humans up in small pieces (unconscious, subconscious, etc) - Basic themes o Emphasis on conscious experience o Belief in the wholeness in human nature o Focus on free will, spontaneity and individuals creative power The only area in psychology that focuses on free will, instead of determinism o The study of all factors relevant to the human condition Carl Rogers’ Person Centered Theory - Drive to self-actualize (greatest motivating force) o Innate urge helped/hindered by early experiences o Positive regard and conditional positive regard Problems of conditional positive regard- child only feels worthy at certain
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