SOc 23 notes test 2 - Chapter 5 The Mortality Transition Mortality Frailty Genetic and environmental(chemical disasters determines mortality Genes

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Chapter 5 – The Mortality Transition Mortality Frailty – Genetic and environmental (chemical disasters) determines mortality. Genes determine diseases we’ll have and lifespan. Genetic Environment Crude Death Rate (Only population size, life expectancy, and deaths) = Total Deaths per Year/ Avg. Total Population in that Year) X 1000. No consideration for age or sex. Death rate and age structure – very interrelated. o Universal Age Pattern: Rule #1: # of deaths high at young/old age. Rule #2: Men are weaker sex, higher mortality. Rule #3: Higher number of male fetuses, higher number of males dies. (115 males for every 100 females. Only 104 males born for 100 females). 1960’s: 20 million infant deaths down to 9.7 million Two aspects of mortality: o Life Span – theoretical maximum number of years human beings are supposed to live. o Life expectancy – average number of years supposed to live at time of birth. o Study of diseases and how they are distributed in countries as well as causes and consequences and how they can be prevented. o Epidemiology- Study of diseases and how they are distributed in countries as well as causes and consequences and how they can be prevented. Epidemic – Virus spreads from city to state – contained din particular demographic area. Pandemic disease that goes global – HIV and AIDS Endemic – Alcohol problem in state college. Russia Update Low fertility, negative population growth, and drop in fertility. Life expectancy is about 58 years. Birth rate fallen – de-population because of: o Excessive alcohol consumption o Drug addiction o Infectious/degenerate diseases o Nuclear disasters o Poor healthcare o AIDS Epidemiologic Transition – Omran (Egyptian Demographer) Technological Advancement and medical technology and rise in standard of living results in changes in patterns of health and diseases, cause of death. Epidemiological Transition in the U.S.
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The Age of Pestilence – Kinds of diseases (cholera, malaria, TB, typhoid, etc.) prevalent in LDCs were prevalent in the US. Life expectancy is 20-40 years. The Age of Receding Pandemics – 19 th century to 1920s, pandemics recede. The Age of Degenerative (Cancer, cardiovascular-Kills most people, 2 nd and 3 rd decades of 21 st century), Alzheimer’s) and Man-Made (emphysema, traffic accidents, mental illness) Diseases. The Age of the Delayed Degenerative Disease o Rapid mortality decline in advanced ages (77.9 years) – People living longer because of major medical technology advancement. o Postponement of the age of degenerative diseases. o Risk of dying pushed to older age. Life Expectancy US – 77.9 years US males – 75.4 years US females – 80.5 years Black males – 69.8 years White males – 75.7 years Black - 73.3 years White Females 80.8 years Black females – 76.5 years White – 78.3 years Black – 73.3 years Hawaii has highest life expectancy – fish diet, small portions, and Asian
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2008 for the course SOC 023 taught by Professor Van hook during the Fall '07 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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SOc 23 notes test 2 - Chapter 5 The Mortality Transition Mortality Frailty Genetic and environmental(chemical disasters determines mortality Genes

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