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LECTURE CONTENT 1. Define/give examples of each stage of mass communication. Mass Communication- the process consisting of 6 stages i. Communicators decide to create a message 1. Not necessarily specialist in the media, but they gather, edit or design messages ii. Messages are encoded 1. Need to be shaped and re-shaped based on the target audience iii. Messages are transmitted 1. Transmitted rapidly and continuously through a use of a Medium (a device use to communicate a message by moving physical information over distance or preserving it through time) 2. EX: Flashbulb Memory iv. Audience 1. Messages are sent to large and diverse numbers, therefore the messages have to be large and diverse themselves a. This has a huge implication on who you do or don’t see in the mass media v. Messages are decoded 1. There is variation to responses of the messages a. People respond differently b. The message could be designed for a particular group 2. One of the most important stages of mass communication vi. Messages influences audience 1. The audience can be impacted in either a trivial to a profound way 2. EX: Sesame Street- learning numbers and letters 3. One of the most important stages of mass communication 1
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2. Define intended effects, and list each of the major types. Intended Effects- deliberate attempts on the part of the communicator to influence the recipient in some way; 5 major types of intended effects i. Impact of Commercial Advertising 1. People are bombarded by about 500 advertisements a day 2. Goal of commercial advertising is PERSUASION ii. Impact of Political Campaigns on Voting 1. Affects voter’s beliefs and behaviors iii. Impact of Public Service Announcements 1. Goal is PERSUASION a. Most of the time PSAs are shown between midnight and 6am when not many people are watching i. This allows the broadcasters to fulfill their duty iv. Impact of Campaigns to Change Lifestyles 1. Identify a social problem and aim to change the audience’s attitude/behavior toward the identified social problem a. Use fear appeals to change attitude i. Yet have to use moderate amounts of fear appeal in order to be most effective which can be tricky 2. More common in 3 rd world countries v. Impact of Campaigns on Ideology and Lifestyle 1. Use media and interpersonal channels to control beliefs a. Ex: Holocaust and Hitler b. EX: The “later, fewer, longer” campaign in China 2. Usually used in totalitarian governments 3. Define unintended effects, and list each of the major types. Unintended Effects- designed for purposes other than to exert social influence, usually to entertain and may result in a negative outcome; 4 major types of unintended effects i. Impact of Television Violence 1. Could lead to real violence ii. Impact of Sexually Explicit Content 1. Could influence men and women’s attitudes and beliefs towards rape, sex, STDs, etc. iii.
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2008 for the course COMM 203 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '06 term at USC.

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