summer-Phil-20B-11-12

summer-Phil-20B-11-12 - Homework for the week Aquinas:...

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Homework for the week Aquinas: “Summa Theologica” Descartes: Meditation1
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A cosmological argument is an argument that attempts to derive the existence of God from certain features of the world given to us in experience. A cosmological argument is thus an a posteriori argument. St. Thomas Aquinas (1224-74)
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The 1 st and 2 nd Ways (1) There are chains of cause and effect in nature. (a posteriori fact) (2) Whatever is caused is caused by something other than itself. (a) If x causes y, then x is prior to y. (b) Thus, if x causes x, then x would be prior to x. (c) Nothing can be prior to itself. (d) Therefore, x cannot be the cause of x.
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(i) If there were such a regress, there would be no first cause. (ii) Without a first cause, no intermediate causes, and thus no current effects. (iii) But there are current effects (see 1). (iv) Hence, infinite regresses are impossible. (4) Therefore, there exists an uncaused first cause.
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summer-Phil-20B-11-12 - Homework for the week Aquinas:...

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