CHEM105F14_Chapter3Stoichiometry - Today Naming ionic compounds Naming covalent compounds Naming acids Naming simple organics 1 Naming Chemical

CHEM105F14_Chapter3Stoichiometry - Today Naming ionic...

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Today Naming ionic compounds Naming covalent compounds Naming acids Naming simple organics 1
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Naming Chemical Compounds Loosely Five categories for naming compounds Ionic compounds Covalent compounds Organic compounds Acids/Bases Compounds with common names Metal with nonmetal Electrons not shared 2 Nonmetal with nonmetal Sharing of electrons Carbon containing compounds (excluding carbon oxides) Species that donate or accept protons (one definition) Water and ammonia
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Writing Ionic formulas 3
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Example: Aluminum and oxygen Al is group 3A metal : Likely to lose 3 electrons: Al 3+ Oxygen is group 6A nonmetal: Likely to gain 2 electrons: O 2- Need appropriate number of atoms to balance 3+ with 2- Al 2 O 3 4
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Naming Binary Ionic Compounds 1. Cation named first and anion second 2. Cation takes name from name of parent element 3. Anion named by taking the root of the element name and adding ide 4. No Prefixes are used 5
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Binary Examples Examples: KCl MgBr 2 CaO 6
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The formula for magnesium fluoride is 7 MgF MgF2 Mg2F MgF2 None of the above 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
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Compounds with more than one oxidation state Transition metal cations usually require a Roman numeral Charge on the metal ion must be specified. Roman numeral indicates the charge of the metal cation 8
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Periodic Table 9
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Binary Examples Examples: CuBr FeS PbO 2 10
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Polyatomic Ions Must be memorized (Table 2.3 (pg 60 in text)) Examples of compounds containing polyatomic ions: 4 copper(II) sulfate KSCN potassium thiocyanate NH 4 NO 3 ammonium nitrate Formula Name Formula Name Cations Oxoanions NH 4 + ammonium SO 3 2 sulfite H 3 O + hydronium SO 4 2 sulfate Hg 2 2+ mercury(I) NO 2 nitrite NO 3 nitrate Diatomic anions PO 4 3 phosphate OH hydroxide MnO 4 permanganate CN cyanide CrO 4 2 chromate Cr 2 O 7 2 dichromate Anions containing carbon ClO hypochlorite CO 3 2 carbonate ClO 2 chlorite CH 3 CO 2 acetate ClO 3 chlorate C 2 O 4 2 oxalate ClO 4 perchlorate 11
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Today Naming ionic compounds Naming covalent compounds Naming acids Naming simple organics 12
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Covalent Compounds Formed between two nonmetals. 1. First element in the formula (more metallic) is named first, using the full element name. 2. Second element named as if it were an anion (ends in ide) 3. Prefixes are used to denote the numbers of atoms present.
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