Parrish_Reserves_CALCOFI

Parrish_Reserves_CALCOFI - PARRISH: MARINE RESERVES FOR...

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PARRISH: MARINE RESERVES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT: WHY NOT CalCOFl Rep., Vol. 40, 1999 MARINE RESERVES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT: WHY NOT RICHARD PARRISH Pacific Fisheries Environmental Laboratory National Marine Fishenes Service 1352 Lighthouse Avenue Pacific Grove, California 93950 pamsh@pfeg.noaa.gov ABSTRACT Marine reserves have recently become a politically cor- rect way of viewing the management of marine resources. Much of the reason for this is due to the depressed state of many of the populations that have been the mainstay of both commercial and recreational marine fisheries. The apparent failure of past management has led to a headlong rush for a paradigm shift. Marine reserves that occupy no more than about 5% of the productive habitat can provide sites for research, for monitoring nat- ural variability, and for preserving habitat and diversity for heritage purposes. But the case for large marine reserves for fisheries management purposes has not yet been adequately made. The few available modeling studies suggest that for fish- eries management purposes, marine reserves need to be on the order of 50% of the productive habitat. Analyses presented here suggest that, with reserves this large, cur- rent yields can be obtained only with a considerable increase in total fishing effort and a very large increase in the mortality rates in areas open to fishing. This im- plies a large increase in the trawling rate, and probably associated ecological damage, in the exploited area. Even if it were desirable to manage an individual species with large marine reserves, the concept breaks down when applied to the West Coast trawl fishery, which is based on many species, each with a different habitat. A ma- rine reserve established for overexploited groundfish pro- vides little real protection for migratory species such as Pacific hake, but may greatly increase the cost of fish- ing for these species. INTRODUCTION There is a sea change brewing in the way we man- age our fishery resources in the California Current re- gion, and it has its origin in the last several decades of decreasing yields and populations of many of the most important West Coast sport and commercial fisheries (Ralston 1998). It is not yet clear what changes will occur, because there are several competing strategies as to how we should alter current management. However, marine reserves are certain to play a much more im- portant role than they have in the past, and a wide range of sizes has been suggested (Yoklavich 1998). Although no-take marine reserves have played a very minor role in the management of marine fisheries of the California Current region, areas have been extensively closed to specific commercial gear types (gill nets, purse seines, and trawl nets). For the purposes of this work I will define marine reserves as areas in which fish and shellfish cannot be legally taken by either commercial or recre- ational fishers, and closed areas as areas where specific fish- ing gear cannot be used.
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This note was uploaded on 08/06/2008 for the course ESM 260 taught by Professor Lenihan during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

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Parrish_Reserves_CALCOFI - PARRISH: MARINE RESERVES FOR...

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