Study_guide_midterm - To succeed in the test you need to...

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To succeed in the test you need to have a good knowledge of the following things: 1- The cell structure and functions a. Organelles Nucleus- controls the cell, contains DNA (store genetic material) Endoplasmic reticulum - is a network of tubular and flat vesicular structures in the cytoplasm that all interconnect with one another, Rough ER consist of protein synthesis, Smooth ER synthesis of lipids Golgi Apparatus - secrete hormones and enzymes, package secretory vesicles. Lysosomes- intracellular digestion Centrioles- located in an area free of ribosomes and ER. Involved in cell Division. Mitochondria – power house, energy production b. Cell membrane- bound the cells and gives it limits. Citric acid cycle- 2- DNA, RNA, a. Chromosomes - those structure providing for inherited and individual characteristics of an animal, each chromosome is made of large molecules of DNA b. Differences between DNA, RNA – the difference is the RNA leaves the nucleus and DNA does not. DNA is double stranded , RNA is single stranded. RNA control the synthesis of protein. RNA use Uracil , DNA use Thymine c. Replication - Transcription - decoding the DNA and transferring the code to RNA Translation – amino acids fit into the code Types of RNA mRNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the genetic blueprint copied from the sequence of bases in a cell's DNA tRNA- transfer RNA (tRNA) carries amino acids to the ribosomes for incorporation into a protein. rRNA (Ribosomal RNA (rRNA))is found in the cell's ribosomes, the specialized structures that are the sites of protein synthesis).. This blueprint specifies the sequence of amino acids in a protein.
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