Body_heat_and_temperature_regulation - Body Heat and...

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Unformatted text preview: Body Heat and Temperature Regulation Chapter I2 FunctionaIAnatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals Body Temperature & Heat Temperature vs heat I? T = degree of hotness or coldness; arbitrary - H = calorie: l gm H20, l degree C @ l atm;amount Body functions = chemical reactions Temperature dependent — rate Homeotherms — mammals 8: birds Poikilotherms — reptiles & amphibians Rectal Temperatures ANIMAL Stallion Mare Donkey Camel Beef cew Dairy cow Sheep Goat Pig Dog Cat Rabbit .1: 32.6 3?.3 3?.4 3?.5 33.3 33.5 39.1 39.1 39.2 33.9 33.5 39.5 Chicken {daylight} 41.? AVERAGE 99.1l 100 99.3 99.5 101 101.5 102.3 102.3 102.5 102 101.5 103.1 10?.1 'C 32.2—33.1 32.3—33.2 35.4-38.4 34.24103 36.1—39.1 33.0-39.3 33.3—39.9 33.5-39.1r 33.2—39.3 37.9—39.9 33.1—39.2 33.6-40.1 40.5—43.0 RANGE .1; 990—1003 99.1—100.3 9?.5-101.1 93 .3—1 05.3 93.0—102.4 100.4--1 02.3 1009—1033 1013—1035 1016—1035 1002—1033 1005—1025 101.5~—104.2 1050—1094 Diurnal Temperature i Camel, dehydrated I Temps vary I Conditions H Time of clay H Exercise Rectai temperature, C H Ambient temp Camel. watered H Digestion H Water Heat Production & Bodth Decreasing surface areafkg Decreasing heat preductienfkg 10.00'0 1 .Dflfl 10E! HEAT PRODUCTION kcalfday [11 1 10 T00 iflflfl BODY WEIGHT, kg Energy Balance Model Energy intake OE food {WU} Slmttnstr'nu’e+02 —- - .—.- Cflg+HEO {+ products Such as N2} Heat Production and Loss I Temperatures It Incipient hypothermia Summit metabolism (B) It Critical (C) It Marked increase in EHL (D) -* Incipient hyperthermia (E) Zones Least thermo regu lator'yr effort and minimal material demand l Hyperthermia I I . l ' I l I I Deep body temperature I .f I I I' l l I l‘i—Thermoreguldtorylflange —}l I I ' ' I l l l Minil‘nal Metabolisml "—'—>l 'I I I l Hate of heat production or loss —. TempErature Eva orative heat loss c' B Environmental temperature —- Channels of Heat Transfer fifinfli’: ‘~+:a?jaa3§-;?ii - I Fleflefie-d Eunilght . S b I e I I D|rec1 Inlrarefl lhfirmal SLJI'IIIghI radnmlonlrnm - arm nsph are '1’ Conduction a. . mnfl'clfif . COnVECtIOn ScatlereEl Sunllght a .Euaporatnnn 2 ‘~ -- ' +++ mm ' E r‘aLiGfl ' d I r ." -' Radiant "ml , mm _~ ,- - I 'bl ' ' + i nsen51 e — evaporation lwma _ W W. . “a, In“. I 'l *v “H 5* M? r .l ,f I 'r 12-" Mm an I; H“ Reflected Sunligh] a -j;.' If Infrmefirfimahfln Circulatory Adjustments Epidermal papilla Adipp5e tissue 0 Sympathetic tone (ST) 0 Cold: increase ST 0 Hot: decrease ST Distribution of Body Temperatures Countercurrent Heat Exchange Ame . - _ ‘— ry ‘ a Supefiicial capMafles O Ljn1bs O Téstes Sweat Glands Epidermis Arrector pili muscle SEbHCEDUS gland Hair follicle Hypudermis {subcutaneous} Apocrine sweat gland Evaporative Heat Loss Sweating Panting Salivation Wallowing Types and putative function of the sweat glands of domestic animals and humans Species flog Cow Sheep Goat Horse Camel Human Species Bofine Equine flvi ne Eapnne Porcine Canine Fehne Site Type [a n troi Foot pad Eccri ne Eh oli nergic Skin Apocrine Adrenergic (a?) Skin Apocrine Adrenergic {ct} Skin Apocrine Adrenergic [(1) Skin Apocrine Adrenergic [ct] Skin Ftp-amine Adrenergic {[59} Skin Apocn'ne Adrenergic {[52} Skin Eccn’ne Eholinergic Potiila Apoerine Adrenergic (u?) Evaporative heat Loss strategies Panting Sweating + mm+++$$ Function Frictional resistance Pheromone? Thermoregulation Thermoregulation Thermoregulation Thermoregulation Thermoregulation Thermuregulation Pheromone? Wallowi ng {Water buffalo} DGEGDD Hypothalamic Response Impulse; I second 34 3E 33 40 :12 Hypnthalamic temnerature, C Receptor Responses Impulse frequency Receptor" Types Afferent Temperature Impulse frequency Warm Receptors Core Location Temperature Integration of Body Temperature Control Visceroi Receptors t'lentre:r nervous 5an system .__‘_ Warm reoeotore_l A Set Point \x l warm receptors i- ' -. 4!- (3in receptors _ [Hypoiha'amusg - Cold receptors II. I' \MH _ ____ Eff} Behavior 1 Behavior Cutaneous vasooonstriotion Cutaneous vasodilalion Piloereotion Panting andfor Shivering sweating andr‘or Nonshivering thermogenesis saliva spreading Walls Evapflratiun {22%) Hadiatinn {60%) % Heat waves Ennductimn tfl air (15%} ‘1:_:.__ a Airflurrems / {canvectinn} 3 FIGURE ?3-4 Ik-‘lcchanifims ml' heal hm; Fran} Tllfl handy. Canductinn tr: abjecta {3%) 1t.~"a'|..=nt:u:ttlaterzi Heat conductance thtcugh akin {times the uaacccnatrictecl rate) Va aeccnatricted EU ED FE: BID 9D 10E 11E! 12E Envircnmental temperature {91:} Pore xx fl Duet I Absorption, mainly sodium and chloride ions Giand Firimar'gir ' Secretion, mainly protein» free fiitraie |<————— Dermis ———-——* l4—— Epidermis —r| Sympathetic ' nerve FIGURE 3'3—5 Sweat giand innervated by an aeetyiehoiine—seereting Sympath-Stit: nerve. A prirriatw protein—free SE'L'FSHOH is; formed by the glandular pt)rli0[1. but much, if not most, of the electrolytes are reabsorbed in the duet. leaving a dilute, watery secretion. Upper limit TBmDElaTUVE of survival? regulation seriously Heatstroke impaired ] Brain lesions 1 Fewer therapy Temperature , _ r regulatim ] Febrile disease etlioient in and , teorile disease, hard EXEVCJSE health. and work ’ Usual range of normal Temperature regulation impaired Temperature regulation Lower limit “351 of survival? Bod}; [Etttperattn‘es urtiJEJ' dill—erenl conditions. {Redrawn from DuBeie EF: Fever. 1948. Courtesy of Charles C Thomas Pehlisher, Lth Fever HEAT PRODUCTIDH MD CDNSERVflTIfiH B'r HEAT L055 ET SHIVERING AND SWEhTIHG AHI‘J 9A5 DC DHSTRIETI DH “#50 DIL ATATIDH 4L l—l 3 SET palm—J FEVER CORE TEMP ("Cl DI ifl [H W 1‘ TIME lhc-urs] T EKPUSUHE TO FEVER PTRUGEH ENDS Set-paint suddenlyr raised to high value - — F - Setting of the thermostat Actual body temperature C) U1 1G4 . . a? {CRISIS Ems - - - ~ - - - - - - - 5 I @102 I - . a I ‘v’aaedllatldn 51m : / Sweating Eli ; "1. Vaaeednatrietien' S _ - 3.1m . _ . et paint auddeniv a Egfiigfim: : *’ reduced to low value fig aeeretidn / 98 4. Shivering ' ' - ' _ ' ' El “I 2 3 4 5 Time in heura FIGURE 3'3-11 Effects uf changing the eel—paint of the hypethaiamie temperature :entrei ier. Hibernation 0 Act of resting in a dormant state in a protected burrow 0 Characteristics I? Homeotherms Autonomous process Radical Physiologic functions continue: lower rate III -> Body temp lowered O Awakening - rapid 0 Brown fat 0 Hypothermia - Species - Age 0 Hyperthermia - 4| .5 - 42.5 -> Heat stroke J Dehydration I Circulatory collapse ...
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