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Chapter 13 - Psychological Disorders What is Abnormal? Deciding what is normal and what is abnormal is a value judgment. Mental illness judgments are based on cultural values, social trends, political forces, as well as scientific knowledge. Four criteria for defining abnormal behavior: Statistical infrequency Disability or dysfunction Personal distress Violation of norms Classifying Psychological Disorders: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders –Fourth Edition –Text Revision(DSM-IV-TR) oLists all the acceptable labels for all psychological disorders with descriptions for each disorder and explanations of how to distinguish them from similar disorders oFive axes of the DSM-IV Axis I: Clinical Disorders Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation Axis III: General Medical Conditions Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning Types of Axis I - Clinical Disorders: Anxiety Disorders: A class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety Mood Disorders: A class of disorders marked by emotional disturbance of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes Schizophrenic Disorders: A class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior Dissociative Disorders: A class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruption in their sense of identity Somatoform Disorders: Physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors (these disorders are not on the exam) What Causes Abnormal Behavior? There are seven major perspectives that emphasize different factors believed to contribute to abnormal behavior 1. Biological problems with brain function, genetic predisposition, or biochemistry 2. Sociocultural problems reflect cultural values and beliefs 3. Behavioral inappropriate conditioning or modeling 4. Cognitive faulty thinking 5. Humanistic blocked personal growth 6. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic unconscious, unresolved conflict 7. Evolutionary exaggerated form of an adaptive reaction
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