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Lecture_3_ESM214_05

Lecture_3_ESM214_05 - ESM 214 Lecture 3 Wastewater Flows...

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ESM 214 Lecture 3: Wastewater Flows and Constituents W’05 T. Holden
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Wastewater Defined: water supply of a community or industry after it has been used (Fig. 1.1 M&E) Treatment: “onsite” or offsite (“centralized”) Offsite treatment requires a “collection and conveyance” system
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What are the wastewater flows? Domestic (sanitary) Industrial Infiltration/inflow Stormwater
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Wastewater flow rates Rule of thumb: US domestic is ca. 100 gpd/capita (ref. Tbl. 3-1 M&E) Developing countries: 5 to 50 gpd/capita ( Tbl. 3-9 M&E) Other: depends on facility (industry, commercial, etc.) I/I can be significant (Fig. 3.2 M&E) Units: 3.7854 liters per gallon In U.S., gallons most frequent unit of volume MGD = million gallons per day Concentration: mg/L or lbs/MG
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Wastewater flows: why do we care? Collection and conveyance system design Treatment system design (M&E Tbl. 3-20) Hydraulic criteria: must be able to pass peak flows Treatment criteria: meeting treatment standards depends often on “hydraulic residence time” = Volume / flow rate (l 3 / l 3 /time) e.g. MG / MGD = days = residence time Growth projections (population, development)
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Factors affecting flow rates Geographical location & socioeconomic conditions Type of development Season Time of Day Climate (rain or dry)
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“Diurnal variations” in domestic wastewater flows
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Wastewater flows Flows are either normally distributed or log- normal (log of flows are normally distributed) Statistical procedures based on flow history used to determine average (dry weather, wet weather, annual daily), peak (instantaneous, hour), maximum (day, month), minimum (hour, day, month) (Table 3-11 M&E)
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