class19_w08

class19_w08 - Technology forcing through the Clean Air Act...

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Technology forcing through the Clean Air Act Title II of the CAA: (A) tailpipe emission standards; (B) requires cleaner fuels Requirements of 1970 Act: 90% reduction in VOCs and in CO by 1975 90% reduction in NOx by 1976 At the time, there were no available technologies to achieve these reductions The targets were not met by 1975-1976, but they were met by 1985. (Development of the catalytic converter) __________________________________________________________________ CAFÉ standards (corporate average fuel efficiency) (from the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act) US vehicle fleets must meet 27.5 mpg average fuel efficiency Light trucks, including SUVs, need only meet 20.7 mpg Energy Policy Act of 2007 requires 35 mpg average for all categories, by 2020
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Catalytic converter technology provides effective control of NOx emissions 2 chambers: (i) reduction of NO (ii) oxidation of CO, HC 2 NO + 2 H 2 N 2 + 2 H 2 O [Rh catalyst; H 2 made by reacting HC w/H 2 O] 2 CO + O 2 2 CO 2 [Pt/Pd catalyst] C 2 H 4 + 3O 2 2 CO 2 + 2 H 2 O (etc) [Pt/Pd catalyst] Sulfur deactivates the catalyst metals by binding to them
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Particulates Particles suspended in air (dust, soot, mist, fog) Slow sedimentation depending on square of diameter Classed by size: 2 nm – 100 μ M 2.5 μ M cutoff defines “coarse” vs. “fine” particles “Fine” particles are a criteria pollutant under the CAA.
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Particulates- Sources Coarse particles Mostly from natural sources : soil dust, debris from fires, sea salt aerosols, pollen, volcanoes
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This note was uploaded on 08/06/2008 for the course CHEM 123 taught by Professor Perona during the Winter '08 term at UCSB.

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class19_w08 - Technology forcing through the Clean Air Act...

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