15Glaciers

15Glaciers - ESM 203: Ice in the Climate System Jeff Dozier...

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ESM 203: Ice in the Climate  ESM 203: Ice in the Climate  System System Fall 2007
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Components of the  Components of the  cryosphere cryosphere Seasonal snow (covered in Lecture 7) Glaciers Formed from snow through metamorphism, possibly melt  Mountain glaciers to continental-scale ice sheets, which  account for 2% of Earth’s water, and ~80% of fresh water Sea ice Formed from freezing of sea water and incremented by  snow on the ice Expulsion of brine drives thermohaline circulation Permafrost: perennially frozen soil Lake and river ice
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Science Science  magazine (22 Dec 2006),   magazine (22 Dec 2006),  breakthroughs of the year breakthroughs of the year 1. Proof of the Poincaré conjecture 2. Digging out fossil DNA 3. Shrinking ice “Glaciologists nailed down an unsettling observation this  year: The world’s two great ice sheets—covering  Greenland and Antarctica—are indeed losing ice to the  oceans, and losing it at an accelerating pace….” (also see  New York Times,  01 Oct 2007, for a cool graphic  on sea ice:  http://tinyurl.com/2ne94h )
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Global water stores Global water stores Oceans 97.2% Glaciers, ice sheets and snow 2.0 Groundwater (750-4000m) 0.4 Groundwater (<750m) 0.3 Lakes 0.01 Soil 0.005 Atmosphere 0.001 Rivers 0.0001 Biosphere 0.00004 Black, P. E. (1995) On the critical nature of “useless” resources,  Water  Resources Bulletin
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5 Formation of glacier ice Formation of glacier ice Metamorphism makes snow denser after it falls Transfer toward bonds sinters crystals Melt-freeze cycles further increase snow density Where some snow survives melt season, layers pile  up and squeeze lower layers (increase density),  causing snow to turn to ice Typical densities, kg m –3 new snow 10–300 glacier ice 650–900 older, unmelted snow 250–400 pure water ice 917 melted and refrozen snow (névé or firn) 300–600 liquid water 1000
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6 Formation of sea ice or lake ice Formation of sea ice or lake ice
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7 Mass balance of a mountain-valley glacier Mass balance of a mountain-valley glacier More net accumulation at higher elevations because
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This note was uploaded on 08/06/2008 for the course ESM 203 taught by Professor Dozier,dunne during the Fall '07 term at UCSB.

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15Glaciers - ESM 203: Ice in the Climate System Jeff Dozier...

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