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07Snow - ESM 203 Snow in the hydrologic cycle Jeff Dozier...

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ESM 203: Snow in the hydrologic ESM 203: Snow in the hydrologic cycle cycle Jeff Dozier and Thomas Dunne Fall 2007
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Worldwide importance of the mountain Worldwide importance of the mountain snowpack snowpack Barnett et al., Nature, 17 Nov 2005 1/6 of Earth’s population relies on glaciers or seasonal snow for their water supply
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3 Topics Topics Snow accumulation and runoff Energy balance of the snowpack Water flow Snow metamorphism and melt Implications for nutrient cycling in watersheds Long-term trends
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4 Example: Merced River, Happy Isle in Example: Merced River, Happy Isle in Yosemite Valley Yosemite Valley Peterson et al., USGS
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5 SWE (snow water equivalence) and SWE (snow water equivalence) and mass balance mass balance ( 29 -2 , 0 0 3 (snow density depth) [kg m ] (layers) (Divide by density of water to express as a depth equivalent) [m or mm] 1000kg m Mass balance: Snowfall - Sublimation - s d n s s n n s w SWE d z dz d SWE d SWE ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ - = = = = = Runoff Water balance: Runoff = Melt Storage 2
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Manual measurement of Manual measurement of SWE SWE 6
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7 Measurement of SWE and Snowfall Measurement of SWE and Snowfall
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8 Automated measurement with snow Automated measurement with snow pillow pillow Map of pillows in Bales et al. 2006
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Snow-pillow data for Dana Meadows Snow-pillow data for Dana Meadows (DAN) and Tuolumne Meadows (TUM) (DAN) and Tuolumne Meadows (TUM) 10/01 11/01 12/01 01/01 02/01 03/01 04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 1983 TUM 1983 DAN 2003 2003 2005 2005 SWE, mm 9
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Accumulation and ablation inferred from snow pillow Accumulation and ablation inferred from snow pillow data, Tuolumne Meadows (TUM) and Dana Meadows data, Tuolumne Meadows (TUM) and Dana Meadows (DAN) (DAN) 10
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