PlanetaryHydrology_2007

PlanetaryHydrology_2007 - ESM 203 Planetary Hydrology Jeff...

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1 ESM 203: Planetary Hydrology Fall 2007
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2 Earth System Science Earth consists of system components “Solid” planet Atmosphere Ocean Cryosphere Hydrosphere Continental “near surface” (pedosphere and biosphere) “Technosphere”
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3 Earth System Hydrology Planetary hydrologic processes Land-atmosphere interactions modulated by plants and soils Subterranean water The hydrologic role of snow and ice Water Supplies
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4 Hydrologic Cycle The continual transfer of water, in various phases, among reservoirs (stores) in the atmosphere, ocean, and continents
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5 Earth System: physical climate and biogeochemical systems, coupled by the hydrologic cycle Asrar and Dozier
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6 The hydrologic cycle is driven by … Solar energy Exchanges of this energy within the Earth system results in evaporation/condensation, freezing/thawing, changes of density Internal Earth energy (residual heat and radioactivity) Locally near surface and more extensively at great depth, geothermal heat causes density changes and convection in groundwater Gravity Wind (pressure gradients caused by gravity) Rivers/glaciers flowing downhill Groundwater moving because of potential energy gradients in the water
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7 Water on Earth (approx. 1.4 x 10 9 km 3 ) Oceans 97.2% Ice 2.0 Groundwater - deep (750-4000m) 0.4 Groundwater –shallow (<750m) 0.3 Lakes 0.01 Soil 0.005 Atmosphere 0.001 Rivers 0.0001 Biosphere 0.00004 Read: Black, P.E. On the critical nature of “useless” resources; Water Resources Bulletin (1995)
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8 Never at Rest …. Evaporation from the ocean, precipitation onto the ocean, transfer of a portion over continents Precipitation on continents (rain, snowfall, snowpack storage and meltwater release) Evaporation from continents (if it occurs directly from a water surface or soil surface), evapotranspiration if the evaporation is modulated by plant processes. Infiltration Percolation through soils and rocks Streamflow (stormflow and baseflow); flow through lakes Flow through the ocean Evaporation from the ocean …. . etc., etc. Water moves continually between the reservoirs by a number of processes: Energy (and its spatial variability) is the key to the continual transfer of water mass
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9 Fluxes between stores Note that the ocean area is about twice the land area; these numbers are in volumes per unit area of surface) Evaporation from ocean 117 cm/yr Precipitation onto ocean 107 cm/yr Precipitation onto land 74 cm/yr Evaporation from land 49 cm/yr Runoff from land 25 cm/yr Over the ocean, E > P Over land, P > E. Suggests that the storage of water on land causes some kind of “resistance” to evaporation, so that some of the precipitated water “escapes” evaporation and survives to run off the continents as streamflow (R).
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Traditional view of the hydrologic cycle
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PlanetaryHydrology_2007 - ESM 203 Planetary Hydrology Jeff...

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