Ehrenfeld-Gertler-1997

Ehrenfeld-Gertler-1997 - RESEARCH Industrial Ecology in...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
RESEARCH Industrial Ecology in Practice The Evolution of Interdependence at Kalundborg John Ehrenfeld Nicholas Gertler* Technology Business and Environment Program Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA Keywords eco-industrial park green twinning industrial ecosystems industrial symbiosis islands of sustainability Kalundborg I Summary The exchange of wastes, by-products, and energy among closely situated firms is one of the distinctive features of the applications of industrial ecological principles.This at= ticle examines the industrial district at Kalundborg, Den- mark, often labeled as an “industrial ecosystem” or “industrial symbiosis” because ofthe many links among the firms.The forces that led to its evolution and to the inter- dependencies are described and analyzed. Key has been a sequence of independent, economically driven actions. Other potential forms of industrial linkages are critically reviewed in the light of the Kalundborg experience.The evolutionary pattern followed at Kalundborg may not be easily transferable to greenfield developments. Address correspondence to: John Ehrenfeld Technology Business 61 the Environment Program Massachusetts Institute of Technology CTPID, E40-421 Cambridge, MA 02139 USA jehren@rnit.edu 0 Copyright 1997 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technolcgy and Yale University Volume 1, Number 1 *Nicholas Gertler is currently at Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massa- chusetts, USA journal of Industrial Ecology 67
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
1 RESEARCH Introduction Industrial ecology is a new concept emerging in the evolution of environmental management paradigms (Ehrenfeld 1995), and springs from in- terests in integrating notions of sustainability into environmental and economic systems (Allenby 1992; Jelinski et al. 1992; Allen and Behmanish 1994; Ehrenfeld 1995). Environmen- tal thinking has recently focused on a conscious- ness of the intimate and critical relationships between human actions and the natural world, and reflects limits in the current reliance on command-and-control regulation in much of the industrialized world. The critical problem is that, for the most part, the economy operates as an open system, drawing raw materials from the en- vironment and returning vast amounts of unused by-products in the form of pollution and waste. The products that firms market are only a small portion of what their processes turn out; a signifi- cant portion of their output eventually leaves the economy as waste and returns to the envi- ronment in forms that may stress it unacceptably. As long as attention is limited to products and processes viewed in isolation, larger systemic problems, such as the accumulation of persistent toxic materials, will not be addressed. Increased economic output will still cause in-
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 08/06/2008 for the course ESM 282 taught by Professor Geyer during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

Page1 / 13

Ehrenfeld-Gertler-1997 - RESEARCH Industrial Ecology in...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online