Allen-Shonnard-Chapter13 - Source Material For This...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Source Material For This Reading: Chapter 13 from “Green Engineering: Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes” by D. T. Allen and D. Shonnard, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 539 pp. (2001)
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
November, 2000 1 Chapter 13 Life-Cycle Concepts, Product Stewardship and Green Engineering by Kirsten Rosselot and David T. Allen 13.1 INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE CONCEPTS Products, services, and processes all have a life cycle. For products, the life cycle begins when raw materials are extracted or harvested. Raw materials then go through a number of manufacturing steps until the product is delivered to a customer. The product is used, then disposed of or recycled. These product life cycle stages are illustrated in Figure 13.1, along the horizontal axis. As shown in the Figure, energy is consumed and wastes and emissions are generated in all of these life cycle stages. Processes also have a life cycle. The life cycle begins with planning, research and development. The products and processes are then designed and constructed. A process will have an active lifetime, then will be decommissioned and, if necessary, remediation and restoration may occur. Figure 13.1, along its vertical axis, illustrates the main elements of this process life cycle. Again, energy consumption, wastes and emissions are associated with each step in the life cycle. Traditionally, product designers have been concerned primarily with product life cycles up to and including the manufacturing step. Chemical process designers have been primarily concerned with process life cycles up to and including the manufacturing step. That focus is changing. Increasingly, chemical product designers must consider how their products will be recycled. They must consider how their customers will use their products and what environmental hazards might arise. Process designers must avoid contamination of the sites at which their processes are located. Simply stated, engineers must become stewards for their products and processes throughout their life cycles. These increased responsibilities for products and processes throughout their life cycles have been recognized by a number of professional organizations. Box 13.1 describes a Code of Product Stewardship developed by the Chemical Manufacturers’ Association (now named the American Chemistry Council). Effective product and process stewardship requires designs that optimize performance throughout the entire life cycle. The goal of this chapter is to provide an introduction to tools available for assessing the environmental performance of products and processes throughout their life cycle. The primary focus will be on product life cycles, but similar concepts and tools could be applied to process life cycles. Section 13.2 presents quantitative tools used in product life cycle assessments (LCAs). Section 13.3 presents more qualitative tools. Section 13.4 describes a number of applications for these tools and Section 13.5 summarizes the main points of the chapter.
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 47

Allen-Shonnard-Chapter13 - Source Material For This...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online