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LECTURE-05SHAPING & RELATED OPERATIONSNIKHIL R. DHAR, Ph. D.DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERINGBUET BANGLADESH
Department of Industrial & Production Engineering26/2Shaping and PlaningShapingand Planing among the oldest techniquesShaping is where the workpiece is fed at right angles to thecutting motion between successive strokes of the tool.Planing the workpiece is reciprocated and the tool is fed atright angles to the cutting motion.Theseprocess require skilled operators and for the most parthave been replaced by other processes
Department of Industrial & Production Engineering26/3Classification of ShapersHorizontal-push cutPlain (Production work)Universal (Tool room work)Horizontal-draw cutVerticalSlotterKey seaterSpecialpurpose-as for gear cutting
Department of Industrial & Production Engineering26/4Horizontal Push Cut ShaperThe shaper is a relatively simple machine. It is used fairly often in thetoolroom or for machining one or two pieces for prototype work. Tooling issimple, and shapers do not always require operator attention while cutting.The horizontal shaper is the most common type, and its principalcomponents are shown below, and described as follows:
Department of Industrial & Production Engineering26/5Ram: The ram slides back and forth in dovetail or square ways to transmit powerto the cutter. The starting point and the length of the stroke can be adjusted.Toolhead: The toolhead is fastened to the ram on a circular plate so that it canbe rotated for making angular cuts. The toolhead can also be moved up or downby its hand crank for precise depth adjustments.
Department of Industrial & Production Engineering26/6ClapperBox: The clapper box is needed because the cutter drags over thework on the return stroke. The clapper box is hinged so that the cutting too] willnot dig in. Often this clapper box is automatically raised by mechanical, air, orhydraulic action.Table: The table is moved left and right, usually by hand, to position the workunder the cutter when setting up. Then, either by hand or more oftenautomatically, the table is moved sideways to feed the work under the cutter atthe end or beginning of each stroke.
Department of Industrial & Production Engineering26/7Saddle:The saddle moves up and down (Y axis), usually manually, to set therough position of the depth of cut. Final depth can be set by the hand crank onthe tool head.Column: The column supports the ram and the rails for the saddle. Themechanism for moving the ram and table is housed inside the column.
Department of Industrial & Production Engineering26/8Toolholders: Tool holders are the same as the ones used on at engine lathe,though often larger in size. The cutter is sharperred with rake and clearanceangles similar to lathe tools though the angles are smaller because the worksurface is usually flat. These cutters are fastened into the tool holder. just as in