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Unformatted text preview: Partial Budgeting
AAE 320 Paul D. Mitchell Goal
1. 2. 3. Explain purpose of partial budgets Illustrate their structure and use Give some examples Partial Budget Purpose Analyze net return from small changes or refinements to farm operation Partial Budget: focus only on parts that change, not budget each enterprise completely, but build on enterprise budgets Fine tune of current operation: Hold all else fixed to evaluate a small change Marginal/incremental analysis: change input use, shift between inputs or between outputs Simple Examples Plant rootworm Bt corn or conventional corn with soil insecticide Plant more corn and less soybeans Rent an additional 100 acres for corn Buy combine or continue custom hiring Sell current tractor and buy a bigger one Soil test for N or just use credits/guess Benefits: 1) What will be the new or added revenues? 2) What costs will be reduced or eliminated? Costs: 3) What will be the new or added costs? 4) What revenues will be reduced or lost? Partial Budget: Answer these 4 questions and then calculate Net Benefit = Benefits Costs Partial Budget Basic Idea Partial Budget: Define the change analyzed Benefits Costs Additional Revenues Additional Costs
What will be the new or added revenues? What will be the new or added costs? Costs Reduced What costs will be reduced or eliminated? Revenues Reduced What revenues will be reduced or lost? Total Benefits Total Costs Net Benefit Look at buying a planter for 1000 acres of corn and soybean versus custom hire What will be the new or added revenues? Planter Example What costs will be reduced or eliminated? Increased yields due to more timely planting No longer pay for custom planting What will be the new or added costs? What revenues will be reduced or lost? Fixed and variable costs of owning planter I can't think of any Buy planter vs. custom hire for planting 1000 acres cornsoybeans (500 acres each) Additional Revenues Additional Costs
What will be the new or added revenues? What will be the new or added costs? Costs Reduced Higher yields with more timely planting Fixed and variable costs of owning a planter What costs will be reduced or eliminated? Revenues Reduced
Can't think of any Total Benefits No longer pay cost for custom hire What revenues will be reduced or lost? Total Costs Net Benefit Buy planter vs. custom hire for planting 1000 acres (500 each) cornsoybean Additional Revenues Additional Costs
3 bu corn x $2.00/bu x 500 ac = $3,000 1 bu soybeans x $5.25/bu x 500 ac = $2,625 corn $19.11/ac x 500 ac = $9,555 soybeans $20.38/ac x 500 ac = $10,190 Costs Reduced Custom corn planting = $15/ac x 500 ac = $7,500 Custom soybean planting = $16/ac x 500 ac = $8,000 Revenues Reduced
none Total Benefits $21,125 Total Costs Net Benefit $19,745 $1,380 Only focused on costs and revenues that change Made up numbers for illustration Estimate 3 more bu of corn and 1 more bu of soybeans due to more timely planting Planter Example Estimate cost of owning and operating a planter: Use fast and simple method for 100 acres to get corn = $19.11/ac, soybeans = $20.38/ac Custom rates: increased WI 2004 rates for increased fuel costs Corn = 1% loss/day in WI after May 8 Soybeans: 0.25/bu/day in IA study Planter Example: What if "real" Look at your records: How late was your custom planter over the last several years? Estimate the average yield loss you suffered Cost to own and operate planter Several equations for corn and soybeans on web Used the fast and simple method Lower cost if use economic engineering Is $1,380 ($1.38/ac) enough to justify the added hassle of owning and operating a planter? Think Break #23 Suppose you are a cornsoybean farmer who currently custom hires all combining. You are thinking of buying a combine. Do a partial budget analysis of a Combine Purchase vs. Custom Hire decision Needed assumptions/information and questions are given in the next slide Corn acres = 2,000; Farm acres 4,000 Custom Rate = $25/ac Scale Factor = 1.241 + (33.026/acres) 1% yield increase with more timely harvest Average yield = 150 bu/ac; Price = $4/bu 1) What will be the new or added revenues? 2) What costs will be reduced or eliminated? 3) What will be the new or added costs? 4) What revenues will be reduced or lost? 5) What's the net benefit? Think Break #23 Combine Purchase vs. Custom Hire Another Example
Add 50 beef cows to your cowcalf herd Convert 100 acres from grain to forage 1) What will be the new or added revenues? 2) What costs will be reduced or eliminated? 3) What will be the new or added costs? 4) What revenues will be reduced or lost? 5) What's the net benefit? Revenue Benefits
1) What will be the new or added revenues? Sell more steers, heifers, and cull cows Total = $18,899 46 calves (92% efficiency) Save 5 heifers as replacements (10% cull rate) 23 steer calves: 500 lbs x $0.85/lb = $9,775 18 heifer calves: 460 lbs x $0.80/lb = $6,624 5 cull cows $500 each = $2,500 Cost Benefits
2) What costs will be reduced or eliminated? Variable inputs used for grain production Total = $8,320 Fertilizer, seed, pesticides, etc.: $5,350 Labor: $1,500 Variable machinery costs: $1,000 Interest on variable costs @ 6% = $470 3) What will be the new or added costs? Fixed costs Cost Costs Variable costs Interest on cows and bulls = $2,500 Bull depreciation = $300 Total = $8,200 Labor = $600, Vet and health = $500 Feed/Hay = $2,000, Pasture fertilizer = $1,500 Hauling and Miscellaneous = $500 Interest on variable costs @ 6% = $300 Revenue Costs
4) What revenues will be reduced or lost? Grain production from 100 acres Total = ($22,000 + $15,000) = $18,500 Corn: 110 bu/ac x $2.00/bu x 100 ac = $22,000 Soybeans: 30 bu/ac x $5.00/bu x 100 ac = $15,000 Use half of each, since 2 year rotation Partial Budget: Add 50 cows to cowcalf operation and convert 100 acres to forage Benefits Costs Additional Revenues Additional Costs
23 Steer calves, 18 heifer calves and 5 cull cows = $18,899 Fixed and variable costs for 50 more cows and needed bulls = $8,200 Costs Reduced Total Benefits Variable inputs for grain production = $8,320 Revenues Reduced Total Costs $27,219 Revenue from cornsoybean production = $18,500 $26,700 $519 Net Benefit Comments on Analysis Needed more complete enterprise budgets for cowcalf and grain operations Fixed cost added for cows and bulls, but no fixed cost change for crop conversion form grain to forage. Why? Labor for cowcalf less than for grain ($600 vs. $1,500), an added benefit-- What will you do with the extra time? Comments on Partial Budgeting Final comments on Partial Budgets
Economies of Size Opportunity Costs Sensitivity Analysis Risk Changes Economies of Size Cause nonproportional changes in cost and revenue when make changes Adding 20 cows to herd of 200 will increase labor demand, but less than 10% Dropping 100 acres from 1000 acre grain farm will decrease costs, but less than 10% Main Point: Linear (proportional) approximation is fine for small changes, but not for large-- need more complete budgeting if large change Opportunity Costs Should be included in the analysis Capital needs change: include costs (benefits) for borrowing more (less) money or tying up more (less) of your capital in farm assets Labor and Management changes: include the costs/benefits of your and your family's time commitment changes Change farm operation due to changes in credit or labor resources or desires Sensitivity Analysis Assumptions used to construct partial budgets not always known with certainty Run analysis with a range of assumptions Yield benefit for more timely planting Crop yields and prices Machinery costs Low, average, high, worst or best case scenario Find break even price or yield and decide how likely Formally model the uncertainty: use probability distributions, decision trees, or pay off matrices and do risk analysis Risk and Partial Budgeting Partial Budgeting ignores changes in risk Without formal "tools" comparisons ignore risk, or bring it in afterwards in ad hoc way Converting 100 acres from grain to forage and adding 50 cows to cowcalf operation: What are the risk implications? "The financial risk of owning a planter is too great to justify the $1,380 net benefit" "The risk of not finding a custom combiner is too great to justify the $6,900 net benefit" More Information Partial Budgeting a common tool in ag, use Google Extension Services in many states have bulletins or fact sheets U of Maryland (posted) Penn State (posted) Colorado State, Virginia, Vermont, etc. Summary Explained and illustrated the purpose of partial budgets Did examples, including Think Break #18 Explained some issues/weaknesses of partial budgets (size economies, opportunity costs, sensitivity analysis, risk) For problem set and exam: be able to make simple partial budget using given information and interpret findings ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/08/2008 for the course AAE 320 taught by Professor Mitchell during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.
- Spring '08