Psyc 100 - Final Exam Notes (edited) - Final Exam Notes Unit 11 Cognitive Psychology I Language Defining Language language = a method for communicating

Psyc 100 - Final Exam Notes (edited) - Final Exam Notes...

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Unformatted text preview: Final Exam Notes Unit 11 – Cognitive Psychology I – Language Defining Language - - - - - - language = a method for communicating information (including ideas, thoughts and emotions) animals can communicate – do they possess language skills? o E.g. Bees = dance to communicate Music = “universal language” à each key and chord change carries a specific emotional message that is universally understood o Generally music just supports the lyrics – the lyrics are what convey a greater meaning Other unusual ways humans communicate o Music o Body language Comprehension o Information = communicated only if the sender + the receiver understand what is going on Vervet monkeys o Different alarm calls for different predators that trigger appropriate responses among the population § Babies react appropriately to the call but their production of calls lags behind their understanding of the meaning - Comprehension precedes production Criteria Language Must Meet - - Semanticity o The extent to which a language can use symbols to transmit meaningful messages (extent that a form of communication can meaningfully represent ideas, events and objects symbolically) o Human language = semantic (every language including sign language and braille) o Ex. Organizing an arrangement of flowers to communicate a message § High level of semanticity o Ex. Bee does a round dance when nectar is close and does a waggle dance when it is far § Low level of semanticity because it cannot communicate a very complex message (just distance and direction information) o Ex. Vervet monkeys § Moderate level of semanticity Generativity o The ability to combine words of a language using rules of composition and syntax to communicate an almost infinite variety of ideas using a relatively small vocabulary § Combine a limited number of words and rules to convey many ideas 1 - o Can generate new concepts – don’t have to have heard a sentence before to understand what it means o The ball hit the boy;; The boy hit the ball à same words different meanings (vervet monkey calls do not meet this criterion for language) Displacement o Use language to convey messages that communicate information about events in the past or future or in another location o Sign language = demonstrates property of displacement § Monkey’s have been taught how to sign o Bidding systems in card games are not language because they can only communicate about the “here and now” (current hand) § Also have limited generativity DEFINING LANGUAGE – A socially agreed upon, rule-­governed system of arbitrary symbols that can be combined in different ways to communicate ideas and feelings about both the present time and place and other times and places, real or imagined Linguistics - - - - - The “rules” of language Psycholinguistics – the study of verbal behaviour and cognition (branch of psychology that studies the acquisition, comprehension and production of language) Phonology o Refers to the rules that govern the sounds, or phonemes, of a language § Phonemes – the basic distinctive speech sounds in a language that distinguish one word from another (e.g. rice and lice) o R and L are different phonemes in English, but not in other languages such as Japanese – some people find it hard to distinguish between the phonemes of these two letters bc they are acoustically similar o Phonological rules govern how phonemes can be combined in a given language § Ex. English = words don’t start with “vl” but it can be in a word “travelling” or at word boundaries “love life” o these rules help us figure out where word boundaries occur in a spoken language since you cannot hear “spaces” between words Morphology o Phonemes combine to form morphemes § Morphemes – the smallest meaningful units in a language o Two types of Morphemes: § Free Morphemes - Meaningful on their own and can stand alone as words § Bound Morphemes - Meaningful only when combined with other morphemes to form words “anti” “ed” § Eg. Engagement à “engage” = free, “ment” = bound Semantics o the meaning of words and rules that govern those meanings 2 - - o semantic rules can be crucial for comprehension (ex. Recognizing that someone is talking about a violin bow instead of a bow and arrow at appropriate times) o the study of how people come to understand meaning from words Syntax/Syntactical Rules o Determine how we combine words to form phrases and sentences (ex. If words are out of order, the meaning of a sentence could be lost) o Essentially grammar o The rules for combining words and morphemes into meaningful phrases and sentences Pragmatics o Knowledge of the world as it relates to understanding and using language – helps you interpret what others say to you (ex. Interpret sarcasm, or know if someone says “I’ll give you a ring” whether they’re going to call you or give you jewelry) o The social rules of language that allow people to use language appropriately for different purposes and in different situations § Ex. Identifying sarcasm using pragmatic cues like body language o Adds meaning to beyond just the meaning of the words Levels of Language Analysis - - Understanding language requires the listener to: o Recognize the sounds (phonemes) o Identify the words in the message associated with their meanings (using morphological and semantic rules) o Analyze the syntax of the message – complex process that requires the use of many cues like word order, word class, function and content words, affixes (a bound morpheme), semantics, and prosody (rhythm, stress, and intonation of speed) o Interpret the utterance in its context – Integrate knowledge about the world (pragmatics) with the syntax and semantics of the utterance Doesn’t necessarily need to follow this exact order Perceiving Spoken Language - - - Articulators – mouth structures that make speech sounds (tongue, jaw, lips, soft palate) When you speak, the articulators work together, very rapidly, to change the configuration of your mouth and facilitate the production of different sounds Identifying phonemes o Different languages have different phonemes and different people have different voices and different ways of producing different sounds, accents, an individual’s pronunciation can vary depending on the situation o This variability requires several perceptual tricks to overcome – we rely on our experience with language + our knowledge of pragmatics to identify phonemes o Machine speech recognition systems have a harder time recognizing words that people are saying – ex. Siri 3 - - - - o Mondegreen – a word or phrase that results from mishearing something said or sung § “How to recognize speech using common sense” mistaken as “how to wreck a nice beach you sing calm incense” Coarticulation – phonemes overlap and the overlap affects both the sound of those phonemes and our expectations about the phonemes around them o Coarticulation results from the articulators moving so fast that they are already preparing to produce the next sound before the last one is finished § Ex. “Boo” and “Baa” = tongue is in a different place so ‘b’ sounds end up being acoustically different and carries some information about the vowel and we use this information to perceive speech § Therefore many sounds can map to a single phoneme Infants and Hearing o Babies = can distinguish between the phonemes of every language o By 1 year old, they lose this ability and can only tell the difference between sounds that are phonemic in their native language o The brain learns to discard unneeded information § E.g. Japanese 6 month old can tell the difference between “r” and “l” but by 1 yr old they cannot anymore – brain realized it doesn’t need to track every possible distinction between sounds - American’s were able to perceive “ra” and “la” as separate groups wherease Japanese do not à example of how perception is warped by experience Categorical Perception o The tendency of perceivers to disregard physical differences between stimuli and perceive them as the same o Continuous change in a physical attribute is perceived not as continuous, but as a discrete change all of a sudden o Ex. When listening to the word “rake” fade to the word “lake” we do not notice small changes, rather we perceive each sound as either one of those words or the other o Therefore, we can perceive phonemes as one sound or another when in reality, the sound may be ambiguous o Discriminating between adjacent items in a set of stimuli that you perceive categorically depends crucially on whether you perceive those adjacent stimuli as the same thing or as different things – ex. Face recognition § It is harder to perceive differences between stimuli that you classify as the same thing (e.g male face 1 vs. male face 2) § ∴ easier to perceive differences between male face 1 vs. female 3 § This is true even if the physical differences between male 1+2 and male 1 female 3 are identical (you still find it harder to perceive differences between 2 males) o Auditory categorical perception depends on your ability to ignore acoustic variability in speech sounds that are irrelevant in your own language and making use of meaningful variability to distinguish phonemes Labelling o Our ability to discriminate far exceeds our ability to label 4 - § Ex. Can tell the difference between many shades of orange but we can’t come up with names for all of those shades ∴ we can discriminate between the shades – we know they’re different but cannot label them Lexical Tone o In mandarin, depending on the way you pronounce “ma” you could mean either mother or horse § These two pitch changes are meaningless in English so we learn to disregard this completely Written Language - - - - - - - - - - a visual symbol system that is imposed on top of an auditory symbol system the linguistic knowledge and analytic skills that assist in speech comprehension and production come in handy for comprehending and producing written language Two Ways to Read o Phonetic Reading – “sounding out” words o Whole Word Reading Morphology helps reader break a word into smaller components Semantics – a reader’s vocabulary – a word might be nonsense to you if it is not in your vocabulary Pragmatics – knowledge of the world – includes information about different purposes, style of writing, as well has different media Spaces help you apply syntactic knowledge to decipher a sentence You can use the syntactic rules of language to read/infer meanings about sentences even if some parts of a sentence are nonsense When we read written languages, we need to know which direction to read Written language = a visual symbol system that is imposed on top of an auditory symbol system (oral language) o Before people can learn to read, they need to be able to map the visual symbol system onto the auditory symbol system § Two Ways People Can Learn to do This: - Alphabetic Knowledge – learn the words of the alphabet and the sounds they make - Phonemic Awareness – begin to analyze phonemes in ways that are not required for language comprehension – ex. Recognizing words with the same ending sounds or vowel sounds Alphabetic knowledge + basic phenomic awareness = foundation for beginning to read phonetically - Eye Tracking o Saccades – eye movements o When we view a scene, our saccades are not random – we fixate on § Interesting factors - The objective content in the scene - What we are specifically interested in in the scene o Eye tracking is a good way to study cognition – help study how people read words and the amount of time they spend on each word 5 Language Development - - - Infant-­Directed Talk o Exaggerated expressive verbal and non-­verbal communication used with infants o Infants preferentially respond to this talk as early as one month old when interacting with strangers o The heavy use of infant-­directed talk helps infants distinguish between encouragement and discouragement o Infants hear all phonemes until they are 1 year old o Infants respond preferentially to IDT in the context of when interacting with strangers (not with parents) Stages of Language Development o Crying § Birthà2 months § Sole means of communication o Cooing § 8à10 weeks babies start (2 months) § Make first speech sounds like “ooh” “aah” § Infants make sounds with their mouths for their own amusement o Interaction and Increased Sound Production § Babies begin to produce more and more sounds o Distinguish their Name § 4 months o Can Distinguish All Phonemes § 6 months until 12 months o Babbling § 7 months § Infants begin to mix consonant and vowel sounds o Becoming a Better Babbler § Babbling begins to take the sound of speech around them § Can still distinguish phonemes of other language but tend to produce sounds similar to their native language o First Discernable Word § 10-­15 months o Vocabulary Spurt § 18 months § Period of strong language growth in children – can produce 50 words § Start to string words together § Telegraphic Speech – speech that sounds like a telegram – only essential words, words are arranged in an order than makes sense and contains almost all nouns and verbs strung together in pairs - ex. “more juice” “I hungry” o Know More than 1000 Words § 5-­6 years § Speak full grammatical sentences Problems Infants Face in Language Development 6 - 1. They’re surrounded by dozens of objects that words can refer to 2. They have no point of reference and can’t ask for clarification • Infants somehow slowly overcome these problems and begin to make connections • First discernable word – 10-­15 months • Overextending words – generalizing words they know to a wider variety of contexts (ex. Calling every man “dada”) • Underextending words – “ball” can mean their specific ball and no other balls Critical periods – times in development during which the brain is extremely responsive to learning a new language – 1st year of life – children who are not exposed to language during this time never really make up for it Theories about Language Acquisition - - Nativism o The philosophical view that we are born with innate knowledge of universal grammar (i.e. the basic features that are part of every language) o Noam Chomsky à said that the development of language is too complex of a process to be a product of just environmental learning o Nativists argue that a system of the brain begins to develop after our first exposure to language o No learning is involved in early language acquisition – children’s linguistic understanding grows with increased exposure to words (like their bodies grow with exposure to food = they have no control) o Points in Favour: § A vast majority of people develop a high competency in their native language – only seen in humans § Genetic evidence: The difference in linguistic ability between humans and other animals may result from a pair of mutations in a gene called FOXP2 - Present in all mammals - Very important – only a few mutations are survivable - On chromosome 7 - Related to severe language disorder § Critical periods: times in development during which the brain is extremely responsive to learning a specific type of knowledge - Children not exposed to language in first years of life (critical period) are never able to make up for it Interactionist Theory o The idea that language development results from interactions among multiple biological and social influences o More emphasis on environment than nativism o The development of language springs from the growth of the infant’s capacity for cognition § Children communicate the complexity of their thoughts o Interactionist Understanding of Grammar § Complexity 7 Emerges from complexity of a growing vocabulary not biologically endowed universal grammar § Social Process - The structure of social environments is based on the use of language, thus these environments are conducive to language development - Multilingual Households - - Bilingual children meet their language milestones around the same time or slightly later than monolingual children but will have more native like accents than people who learn the language later Bilingual children generally speak both languages as well an monolingual children Language and Animals - - Chimpanzees o Washoe o A chimpanzee named “Washoe” was raised in a human family and learned sign language o Learned how to comprehend and produce approximately 350 signs § Semanticity o Referred to other times and places § Displacement o People concluded that she did not show full evidence of generativity – did not take on the syntactic rightness needed to be considered a true language o Kanzyl o Another chimpanzee trained to respond to spoken language o Presses symbols on a screen (lexigram) to produce spoken sounds o Understands names for various objects, comments and requests § Semanticity o Responds to requests where the order of words are important § Generativity o Understands things like moving the TV outside (to another location) § Displacement Bird Songs à not language o Bird calls are highly structured and convey many different meanings o Some birds have as many as 1000 songs o Like humans, birds have specialized parts of the brain for producing songs and processing songs of others o Convergent evolution – the acquisition of the same biological train in unrelated lineages o Hatchlings make simple sounds – like babbles o as they age, they begin to produce subsongs – unstructured rambling vocalization o subsongs develop into structured songs o like humans, birds need to be exposed to adult songs to be able to master themselves 8 - o unlike humans, some songs can be mastered without any exposure to it during development o different dialects – like different accents – exist in different regions Parrot o Alex the parrot learned 150 words o Could answer questions about objects Cognitive Psychology III – Intelligence, Reasoning and Decision Making 1. Defining Intelligence -­ -­ -­ -­ -­ -­ Intelligence – the ability to think, understand, reason and adapt to or overcome obstacles The Differential Approach o an approach in psychology devoted to tests and measures of individual differences in various psychological processes o understanding and quantifying how individuals differ when it comes to traits such as intelligence, personality or self-­esteem Sir Francis Galton o Believe that intelligence is based on biology so it much be related to other biology based phenomena – on the “innate” side o Tried to correlate general descriptions of intelligence with physical factors o Sought to determine a relationship between intelligence and attributes like head size, sensory discrimination ability and neural quickness (speed at which person processes information) o Inspired the creation of the correlation coefficient – a test statistic o Did not find any strong relationships – unsuccessful Charles Spearman – Factor Analysis o A correlational technique invented by Charles Spearman o Examines all the correlations between all the items and determines if any of them are highly correlated with each other o Examines a group of variables and looks for the underlying structure/dimensions that they share o The underlying dimensions are determined by how well a number of variables can be expanded by a smaller number of variables o Use the phrase “the indifference of the indicator” to describe how there was an association between an individual’s score on one type of test (ex. math) and another so either test could be used to measure intelligence o “g” – general intelligence o Spearman correlated different intelligence tests together – he was successful Resistance: o Some people are resistant to the idea or varying innate intelligence because we are all born equal and deserve equal opportunities § Intelligence testing has been used to drive racism § An intelligence test designed by and for one cultural group my underestimate the ability of another cultural group Alfred Binet – 1st to truly assess intelligence o Intelligence is a collection of higher order mental activities 9...
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