ch18 - 1 Anatomy and Physiology II BIO 105-01 Chapter 18...

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Anatomy and Physiology II: BIO 105-01 Chapter 18 Lecture Outline Chapter 18: The Endocrine System Lecture Outline I. COMPARISON of the CONTROL by the NERVOUS and ENDOCRINE SYSTEM A. Together the nervous and endocrine systems coordinate the functions of all body systems. 1. The nervous system controls activities through nerve impulses that cause muscles to contract or glands to secrete. 2. The endocrine system controls activities by releasing chemical messenger molecules called hormones. B. The nervous and endocrine systems act as a coordinated, interconnecting, tremendous system called the neuroendocrine system . 1. The central nervous system stimulates or inhibits the release of hormones. 2. Hormones may inhibit or promote the generation of nerve impulses. 3. The endocrine system regulates long-term processes such as, growth, development, reproduction, and uses chemical messengers called hormones to relay information and instructions between cells. Theses hormones regulate and modify many activities that the cell performs in order to execute metabolism. There are two types of communications between cells. 1 type is called direct communication exchange of ions and molecules between adjacent cells across gap junctions (the heart, the central nervous system: inter-cellular junction) two cells of the same type a highly specialized form of communication. 2 type 1
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Paracrine communication uses chemical signals to transfer information from cell to cell within a single tissues. Most common form on inter- cellular communication. II. ENDOCRINE GLAND A. The body contains two kinds of glands: exocrine and endocrine . 1. Exocrine glands secrete their products ( enzymes ) into ducts. 2. Endocrine glands secrete their products ( hormones ) into the interstitial fluid surrounding the secretory cells, which then diffuse into capillary gaining access to the blood stream. B. Endocrine glands constitute the endocrine system and include the pituitary , thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal , and pineal glands. The heart produces ANP ) atrial peptide) III. HORMONE ACTIVITY A. Hormone Receptors 1. Hormones only affect specific target tissues/cells . 2. Target cells have specific receptors to which hormones bind. (Not all cells respond to a particular hormone, those that do respond are called the target tissue. The ability of a tissue to respond to a hormone depends upon the presence of reception molecules. Any cell that is classified as a target cell to a specific hormones means that cell has receptors sensitive to that particular hormone. The sensitivity of a target cell depends on 2
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3. Receptor molecules are constantly being synthesized and broken down. a. Under conditions of high hormone concentration and decreased surface receptor molecules, down-regulation may occur.
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