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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Psychology: Yesterday and Today Psychology Defined The science of mental processes and behavior. Four goals: Describe Behavior Explain Behavior Predict Behavior Control Behavior Apply Sensation Seeking Personality Levels of Analysis
The brain The person The group Levels of Analysis Level of the brain Brain structure, connections between regions, connections between neurons, neurochemical activity, hormones. Level of the person Beliefs, desires, feelings Level of the group Overt and covert influence of 1+ other being The Evolution of a Science Structuralism (late 1800's) Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener (student of Wundt) Focused on identifying the "building blocks" of consciousness Introspection: Looking within Not objectively verifiable The Evolution of a Science Functionalism (late 1800's) William James Influenced by Charles Darwin Focused on pragmatic issues such as improving education Studied how consciousness helped an individual survive and adapt to an environment The Evolution of a Science Gestalt Psychology (early 1900's) Max Wertheimer Focused on consciousness and principles of perceptual organization Demo: What is a Crayon? The Evolution of a Science Psychodynamic Theory (early 1900's) Sigmund Freud The mind has separate components Much of behavior is influenced by the unconscious Psychoanalysis Conscious and unconscious components The Evolution of a Science Behaviorism (19teen's) Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B. F. Skinner The mind cannot be observed; behavior can. Science should study the observable. Stimulusresponse Reinforcement Clinical Application of Behaviorism Biofeedback Training The Evolution of a Science Humanistic Psychology (late 50searly 60s) Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow Clientcentered therapy Selfactualization The Evolution of a Science The Cognitive Revolution (late 50searly 60s) Alan Newell & Herbert Simon Focus on mental processes (information processing) Computer metaphor Cognitive neuroscience The Evolution of a Science Evolutionary psychology (70s80s) Lida Cosmides, John Tooby, David Buss, & Steven Pinker Evolutionarily successful cognitive strategies and goals survived Cultural universality What is YOUR orientation? Take the five question test... What Psychologists Do Academic Psychologists Teach classes Conduct research Publish articles or books Present at conferences What Psychologists Do Applied Psychologists Solve problems in practical areas Main Types:
Human factors Industrial/organizational Personality Social Sport School Clinical Psychologists May be academic, practioners, or both. Academic: Practitioners: Ethics in Research Institutional Review Board (IRB) Research with people Research with animals ...
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- Spring '07