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NURS 6512N-11: Advanced Health AssessmentWEEK 2 INITIAL DISCUSSION POST #1Assessment Tools and Diagnostic TestsWhen seeking to identify a patient’s health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results.The following discussion will description of how prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test used in health care. I will evaluate the PSA's validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testProstate-specific antigen, or PSA, is a protein produced by cells of the prostate gland. ThePSA test measures the level of PSA in a man’s blood. The results are usually reported as nanograms of PSA per milliliter (ng/mL) of blood (National Cancer Institute, 2011). The blood level of PSA is often elevated in men with prostate cancer, and the PSA test was originally approved by the FDA in 1986 to monitor the progression of prostate cancer in men who had already been diagnosed with the disease (National Cancer Institute, 2011). In 1994, the FDA approved the use of the PSA test in conjunction with a digital rectal exam (DRE) to test asymptomatic men for prostate cancer (National Cancer Institute, 2011). Men who report prostate symptoms often undergo PSA testing (along with a DRE) to help doctors determine the nature of the problem.