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Unformatted text preview: Concept and SkillBased Instruction Using Technology, Active Learning And Feedback J. K. Martin, J. W. Mitchell Univ. of WisconsinMadison A. Jacobi, T. Newell University of Illinois, ChampaignUrbana September 2, 2005 ME364 05/13/09 Learning Gains Some sort of assessment instrument is needed to measure precourse and postcourse understanding One type of assessment inventory is called a concept inventory Learning Gain or Gains = (% Post Course Score % Pre Course Score) 100 % Pre Course Score E.g. The Force Concept Inventory ~30 question multiple choice instrument Example Gains Gains On a 30 question inventory With a precourse score of 15 or 50 % 20 % Gain means postcourse score of 60 % or 18 out of 30 40 % Gain postcourse score of 70 % or 21 out of 30 Three (3) additional correct answers Six (6) additional correct answers 100 % Gain Perfect! The next 3 PPT are adapted from an article by Richard Hake. Objectives Introduce you to this instructional methodology Give you an opportunity to learn what the ideas were that have motivated this methodology Provide some idea on student response Motivation for the Development of This Instructional Methodology Efforts to improve both instructional methodologies and course and curricular content should be This methodology was developed to incorporate practices known to be effective at improving student learning Motivated by improvements in student learning Informed by reliable measures of student learning and understanding InClass Assessment (ConcepTest) Questions Methodology Individual Assessment Peer Interaction Feedback to Students Feedback to Instructor Features of question No calculation Depends on visual representation of fluid behavior Specific information to enforce correct understanding of question Requires understanding of standardized models in fluid mechanics Contains common misconception Features of this methodology Focus on Reading Inclusion of Writing Continuous Assessment Provides environment for Active (and Cooperative?) Learning Opportunity for Repetition, Reflection, and Review Built upon a structure of responsive organization and content Including Active Assessment Discussion What about reading the text? Is writing important in an engineering technical course? Can continuous assessment of student understanding be incorporated into course activities in a "natural" manner? Is it possible to make reflection and repetition acceptable? When the content and organization are flexible???? What about reading the text? Hired undergraduates to assist in the development of concept inventories (e.g. Force Concept Inventory) in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer Began by asking group to review their textbooks from relevant courses Next we videotaped group in discussion of different topics Tell us what they were sure of and was important and not sure of and not important Typical Discussion Questions What is the difference between conduction and convection? What is a temperature gradient? What is a thermal resistance? What is a "lumped parameter" system? What is Fourier's law? Videotaped Discussion What is Fourier's law? Fourier's law is the basic mechanism equation for conduction:
dT q=-k A dx Observations from Discussion Our Reaction to What We Observed of Students: No lack of interest in understanding material Apparent frustration with the learning process Not confident with understanding of material Much of knowledge appears to be unconnected information Have misunderstandings, as well as misconceptions Often don't understand material but can solve complicated problems Have misunderstandings that faculty could not possibly anticipate Observations from Discussion Student view of faculty: Overestimate student grasp of concepts Not attuned to their confusion on "simple" aspects Emphasize coverage Focus on developing skills, not understanding Reading Textbook Finally, asked group to read specific sections of the text Make detailed notes as if they were preparing to lecture on the topic Produce a list of detailed questions on things they were uncertain of The items they were uncertain of would be discussed with us (faculty) to determine where the misunderstandings were Reading Textbook, continued Remarkable outcome: Read text for the first time! Very few questions on misunderstandings A big secret revealed, however... Probably would not do the same for a regular class Too much material in normal reading assignments (and most likely, course overall) Takes too much time Reading Textbook, continued For this methodology Assign specific short reading (46 pages) Ask for notes on reading Ask for Homework Concept Questions... Recognize reality regarding reading of rest of text "Natural" Assessment Reading Assignment Concept Inventory PreLecture Notes Concept Homework Questions Problem Solving Homework before InClass Discussion Pre and PostAssessment InClass Assessment Questions InClass HW Problems Problem Solving Homework Exams, and Final InClass Assessment Questions and Problem Solving A Responsive Learning Experience Learning Objectives/Syllabus Concept Inventory Pre and Post Testing Student Focus Group Results
1. Briefly describe your study habits associated with your learning in this course. Comment on how this course has, if at all, affected your usual study habits. That is, are your study habits similar or different than those you use for other courses? - My study revolves around homework and review of lecture notes. With concept based learning I have become more confident when I take exams because I read more and I read carefully. My understanding is more concise. - I think my study habits are different in that there is more reading and trying to learn concepts than doing problems. However, I have tried to implement those different study habits in my other classes because I think it is more effective. - More thorough than normal. Reading assignments and writing notes especially increased time allotment and grasp. Student Focus Group Results 1. Briefly describe your study habits associated with your learning in this course. Comment on how this course has, if at all, affected your usual study habits. That is, are your study habits similar or different than those you use for other courses? - Study habits did not change in relation to other courses. Did homework when required. I read when required or when I needed further clarification. - For this course, my study habits have been very similar to that of my other classes. My study habits have not really been affected, but I have wanted to do more reading prior to class. Summary Approximately half of the students felt that their study habits were different. The differences included focusing on concepts and not just problem solving, and more careful reading of the assigned material. Student Focus Group Results
2. Briefly describe the methods that have helped you learn in this course. Comment on how this course has, if at all, affected your usual learning methods. That is, are your learning methods similar or different than those you use for other courses? - I learned most when reading assignments were assigned. - The learning method is different, compared to my other classes; I found that studying is more interesting and thorough. - One method that helped me was having to hand in notes on sections we were to read. It forced me to read and try to understand material as I read it. See the problem, break it down, and derive the equations used to solve it. In my eyes this is crucial for an engineer instead of finding an equation and using it. I don't have to do that in any other courses. - Reading the text, trying to understand the concept questions and relating those things to problem solving. Student Focus Group Results
2. Briefly describe the methods that have helped you learn in this course. Comment on how this course has, if at all, affected your usual learning methods. That is, are your learning methods similar or different than those you use for other courses? - Concept questions during class helped me to learn a lot. As long as I knew the concept I could derive an equation without having to memorize it and I always knew how to apply it. - The methods of learning the basic concepts and making sure everyone has an understanding of the basic concepts has affected me very much. Learning methods are much different. - Classroom interaction kept my attention. I have now tried to pay more attention during lectures. Different. Summary: Many students found the most effective learning methods were taking notes on the required readings from the text, and concept questions Student Focus Group Results
3. After taking this course, do you think that you now understand the basic models, vocabulary, order and connections in fluid mechanics? Please comment on your learning in this course. - Definitely- the vocabulary was pounded into our heads because it was used and stressed so often. - Yes, I understand basic concepts better but my problem solving capabilities have declined. - I have a basic understanding of the model. I understand the equations used but applying to a particular problem is what is difficult. - I have a decent understanding of fluid mechanics. The information is a lot to take in and comprehend over one semester. - Yes, I feel that I learned the material in a much more useful way. I will be able to remember the material better in the future. Student Focus Group Results
3. After taking this course, do you think that you now understand the basic models, vocabulary, order and connections in fluid mechanics? Please comment on your learning in this course. - I do believe that I have a good grasp on what terms actually meant and will remember them. This is contrary to other classes in which terms are told once or twice, not discussed and then they are difficult to comprehend or remember. - I understand the basic models much better. I feel that I well retain the knowledge learned much better than past classes. - Vocabulary was tough at times for me to understand classroom examples, pictures, and web-videos, Etc. were very helpful to visualize concepts. Yes, I feel I can understand fluids basics. - Yes. I understand the basics. However, I feel I could use a deeper understanding. Summary: An overwhelming majority of the students believe they now understand the basics of fluid mechanics after taking this course. Student Focus Group Results
4. After taking this course, do you feel that you now have a conceptual framework in fluid mechanics? If so, how would you best describe it? - Yes I look at problems with a more fundamental approach then just looking for numbers and equations. - Yes, I have a conceptual framework in fluid mechanics. It definitely has some holes and topics I don't understand. But the foundation is there. - I would say that I have a good enough grasp to explain basic fluid phenomena.. - Yes, I feel like I know the governing equations and principles and can apply the concepts to any problem. Student Focus Group Results
4. After taking this course, do you feel that you now have a conceptual framework in fluid mechanics? If so, how would you best describe it? - Yes. I believe I can look at a situation and at least know how to apply a control volume and control surface. Look at the mass flow and decide if it is a laminar or turbulent flow. - Yes. This class has helped me to see a larger conceptual framework for all of engineering. There are few basic laws that must be upheld in all cases and many approximate models that give a good picture of a system. Summary: All of the students feel they have some sort of a conceptual framework in fluid mechanics; most of the students describe the conceptual framework they have as "basic." o Student Focus Group Results
5. After taking this course, how would you describe concept-based instruction? In your own words, describe how this method has made a difference, if at all, in your learning? - Concept based instruction entails focusing on concepts rather than working problems in specific applications. Because of this approach, I was able to achieve a better grasp of fluids in general, which is a more valuable trait for a graduating engineer. - Concept based instruction is essentially instruction with continuous feed back from students. It has helped me have an understanding of the material instead of regurgitating information. - I really like it. I think that it is a great teaching tool. Before this class I think I spent far too much time doing homework problems and not attempting to learn the concepts behind the problems. To this end, if I got a problem that was different than the homework, I would not know how to solve it. Summary: Some of the students indicated a deep understanding of the objectives of the method. Student Focus Group Results
6. Comment on how, if at all, this course will help you remember the concepts for use in other classes and on-the-job. How do you think your retention of the concepts from this course will compare to your retention of concepts in other courses that you have taken? - It will definitely help in the ways that I approach real life problems-mostly how to visualize them. - I will remember much more from this class because it fundamentally makes sense to me. The material was all fully understandable and was made interesting by relating it to real life problems. - I think the practical applications and videos that were shown to demonstrate the concepts will make me remember the material conceptually. - Repetition was a good thing. Plus, most of the concepts build on one another. Summary: Most of the students thought they would remember more from this course than in others due to the reinforcement of the concepts. Some thought they would lose problem solving skills, but retain the concepts from fluid mechanics. Student Focus Group Results 7. Did the class size affect your learning? If so, briefly describe how. - No (12) - Yes, the intimate setting of about 35 students really aided in my learning experience. The smaller setting allowed for a better environment to ask questions and make sure everyone understood the material. - The smaller class size was helpful because it allowed for questions and a more personal learning experience. - Yes. It felt like a smaller class than it probably was and that helped me learn better. Summary: A little over half of those surveyed did not feel that class size affected their learning. The other half believed the "smaller" class size benefited their learning experience; the (smaller) class size allowed for good discussion, and made it much easier to ask questions. InClass Assessment Question Exercise Identify two key ideas (concepts), skills or anything you would like students to understand from your course Write a ICAQ for each of these Teach the others at your table Have them experience the ICAQs Report back to us Summary This Instructional Methodology is Learner Centered Reading and Writing Central Continuous and Active Assessment Active Learning Responsive Organization and Content Use of Technology where appropriate Acknowledgements: NSF for funding of the Foundation Coalition Several Unexpected Results Repetition Student Interest and Involvement More effective use of student time Motivating for instructor Almost imperceptible change in content coverage Variation in Type of Assignments Involvement in Evaluation ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/08/2008 for the course ME 364 taught by Professor Rothamer during the Fall '08 term at Wisconsin.
- Fall '08
- Heat Transfer