ch 2 notes - Chapter 2 The Research Process How We Find...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 The Research Process: How We Find Things Out The Scientific Method What are the components of the scientific method? Specify a problem Form a hypothesis "People will remember more words from a list of happy words if, while studying, they listen to happy music than if they listen to sad music." "When asked why the do not steal, older children will report considering the consequences but younger children will report they are obeying adults." Systematic observation Read studies already published Collect Data Replication of studies Test the hypothesis Operational definition How can you measure psychological constructs such as... Depression Shyness Formulate a theory Test the theory New studies! The Scientific Method What is the relationship between theory, prediction (a hypothesis), and data? Prediction Theory Theory development, validation, correction Data Naturalistic observation Case studies Surveys Describing Behavior: The Descriptive Research Methods Predicting Behavior: Correlational Research Studies where the relationships between two or more variables are measured Examples Income and IQ score Height and shoe size Anxiety level and sensation seeking tendency Correlation Strength and direction Correlation Research Strength Can study variables that cannot be manipulated Selfesteem and # of incidents of abuse Weakness Correlation does not imply causation...
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