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121upperpaleo - The Rise of Anatomically Modern Homo...

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The Rise of Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens
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Cranial Changes • Facial prognathism is reduced in comparison to Neanderthals • Brow ridges reduce in size and change in form • The height of the forehead • Cranial vault becomes rounder and less elongated. • The bones of the brain case become thinner. • A distinct chin develops
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Differences Between Neanderthals and Modern Homo sapiens
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The Modern Brow Ridge • Small in comparison to archaic Homo sapiens and less • Divided into central and lateral part
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Evolution of the Chin • The development of a chin is associated with ¾ Reduction in the size of the anterior teeth ¾ Reduction in mid-facial prognathism Homo erectus Homo sapiens
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Post Cranial Changes • Continued reduction in post-cranial robusticity • Linearity of build perhaps suggests African origins for some populations Neanderthal Modern
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Two theories of modern human origins Replacement Hypothesis (a.ka. the Out of Africa, Noah's Ark, and Garden of Eden Hypothesis) suggests that anatomically modern Homo sapiens evolved first in Africa. The then leave Africa (100,000-200,000 years ago) and wipe out the earlier hominids ( Homo erectus , archaic Homo sapiens ) residents of Eurasia Regional Continuity: (a.k.a. the Regional continuity Hypothesis) posits that modern humans evolved from local populations of earlier hominids ( Homo erectus , archaic Homo sapiens ) indigenous to the major regions of the Old World and that gene flow between populations resulted in earlier hominids gradually evolving into modern humans throughout Eurasia and Africa
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The Multiregional Continuity Hypothesis • The dispersal of Homo erectus (or H. habilis ) out of Asia initiated the evolutionary radiation of modern humans • Human populations across the world shared a common gene pool during the transformation to modern H. sapiens • Anatomically modern Homo sapiens gradually developed everywhere through local evolution and through gene flow between regions • Large scale migrations and replacements are ruled out
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Predictions of the Regional Continuity Model • There should be evidence for the transformation of earlier forms into anatomically modern Homo sapiens in Asia and Europe, as well as in Africa • Local populations should maintain distinctive characteristics during the process of evolving into modern Homo sapiens . In other words, there is regional continuity.
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Evidence Supporting the Regional Continuity Model Proponents point to the large noses of Neanderthals and modern Europeans, the flat faces of Zhoukoudien Homo erectus and moderns Asians Modern Europeans supposedly have paranasal sinuses and other minor anatomical variations that are more similar to those of Neanderthals than are those of other modern groups
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Gene flow / Assimilation Model Intermediate between the Regional Continuity and Out of Africa models Similar to the Multiregional continuity but suggests that gene flow between different regional populations may have varied markedly through time and space
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This note was uploaded on 08/06/2008 for the course ANTH 121 taught by Professor Walker during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

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121upperpaleo - The Rise of Anatomically Modern Homo...

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