121neanderthal

121neanderthal - Who were the Neanderthals? Neanderthals...

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Who were the Neanderthals? Neanderthals lived during the Upper Pleistocene between about 150,000 to 30,000 years ago and belong to our species Homo sapiens. They are sometimes given the subspecies designation Homo sapiens neanderthalensis The term Neanderthal has traditionally been used to refer to the specialized Upper Pleistocene population of Europe and the Middle East
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Discovery of the Neanderthals • Discovered in 1856 by laborers working at Feldhofer grotto in the Neander Valley ( Neander Thal in German) • These were the first fossils recognized as being the remains of different kind of human • Originally the Feldhofer remains were described as those of a member of a member of a “barbarous and savage race the occupied Germany before the arrival of modern humans
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Early theories regarding the Neanderthals • Valley remains were dismissed by some as those of some poor “idiot of hermit” • Anther theory was that they were of a Cassock cavalryman who suffered from rickets • Another idea is that they were the remains of someone with syphilis. • Others recognized them as the missing link between apes and humans
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The Geographic Distribution of Neanderthals
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Boule’s Neanderthal Reconstruction Marcellin Boule depicted Neanderthals as stooped over based with legs not fully extended based on his analysis of remains from Old Man of La Chapelle- aux-Saints Emphasized similarities to apes in comparison to modern humans Boule’s reconstruction to some extent was a misinterpretation of degenerative changes in an elderly individual Chimpanzee H. erectus Neanderthal
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How different were they?
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Modern Interpretations of Neanderthals
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Are there Neanderthals among us?
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Neanderthal Cranial Morphology
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Cranial Vault Large brain with a cranial capacities sometimes as high as 1700 cc (larger than the modern human average). Forehead slopes rather than bulging forward as in modern humans. Skull is long and narrow with a pronounced occipital bun with suprainiac fossa. Small mastoid with large occipitomastoid Brow ridge is larger than in earlier H. sapiens but differs from that of H. erectus by being curved over the eyes rather than straight across
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The Occipital Bun A feature present in Neanderthals but not in modern Homo sapiens In Homo erectus the occipital region is thicker than in Neanderthals or modern humans. Homo erectus also has a transverse ridge in the occipital area (occipital torus) and is characterized by a relatively acute angle formed by the intersection of the occipital and nuchal planes.
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Occipitomastoid Crest This feature is much better developed relative to the mastoid process in Neanderthals than in modern humans
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The Neanderthal Face • More prognathism than in modern H. sapiens . • Well developed nasal bones
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121neanderthal - Who were the Neanderthals? Neanderthals...

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