Acinetobacter _Prokaryotes_2006

Acinetobacter _Prokaryotes_2006 - Prokaryotes (2006)...

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CHAPTER 3 . 3 . 25 T h e G e n u s A c i n e t o b a c t e r The Genu s Acinetobacter KEVIN TOWNER Introduction Gram-negat i ve nonfermentat i ve bacter i a belong i ng to the genu s Acinetobacter have been cla ssi Fed prev i ou s ly under at lea s t 15 d i fferent name s (Bergogne-B é r é z i n and Towner, 1996), and i t is only relat i vely recently that rat i onal taxonom i c propo s al s have emerged . Del i neat i on of s pec i e s is s t i ll the s ub j ect of ongo i ng re s earch, and a rap i d and rel i able method of a ssi gn i ng new is olate s to i nd i v i dual s pec i e s is part i cularly needed . Notw i th s tand i ng the cont i nu i ng taxonom i c confu si on, i t is clear that ac i netobacter s are com- mon, free-l i v i ng s aprophyte s found i n s o i l, water, s ewage and food s. They are al s o ub i qu i tou s organ is m s i n the cl i n i cal env i ronment, where they can be is olated a s commen s al s from the s k i n of ho s p i tal s taff and pat i ent They have i ncrea s - i ngly been recogn i zed a s i mportant no s ocom i al pathogen s i nvolved i n outbreak s of ho s p i tal i nfect i on, part i cularly i n h i gh-dependency or i nten si ve care un i t s , where they rap i dly develop re sis tance to even the mo s t potent ant i m i crob i al s (Bergogne-B é r é z i n and Towner, 1996) . Although the si gn i Fcant pathogen i c role of Acinetobacter is largely conFned to no s ocom i al i nfect i on s , i t is i mportant to note that the s e organ is m s are ub i qu i tou s i n both the cl i n i cal and noncl i n i cal env i ronment The i r metabol i c ver s a- t i l i ty mean s that they may play an i mportant role i n a var i ety of commerc i ally i mportant i ndu s tr i al proce ss e s , a s well a s i n the b i odegradat i on of a w i de range of env i ronmental pollutant Wh i le much rema i n s to be learned about the l i fe s tyle s of the d i fferent member s of the genu s i t is clear that s ome facet s of the i r behav i or are un i que and other s prov i de new i n si ght s i nto prokaryot i c behav i or i n general . Member s of the genu s Acinetobacter have s uffered a long h is tory of exten si ve taxonom i c change wh i ch ha s i nh i b i ted a proper apprec i a- t i on and under s tand i ng of the i r si gn i Fcant b i o- log i cal propert i e s and pathogen i c i mportance . Although the del i neat i on of s pec i e s w i th i n the genu s is s t i ll the s ub j ect of ongo i ng d is cu ssi on and re s earch, i t appear s that the current taxon- omy s hould form a rat i onal s c i ent i Fc foundat i on for the numerou s i mportant i nve s t i gat i ve s tud i e s requ i red i n the future . Phylogeny Member s of the genu s Acinetobacter have h is - tor i cally been cla ssi Fed by var i ou s author s under a var i ety of d i fferent name s (Bergogne-B é r é z i n and Towner, 1996) and con s equently, much of the early l i terature concern i ng th is group of organ is m s is d i fFcult to i nterpret ow i ng to con- fu si on over phylogeny and the lack of a w i
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Acinetobacter _Prokaryotes_2006 - Prokaryotes (2006)...

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