Lecture_3_ESM219_07

Lecture_3_ESM219_07 - What is the genetic material? ESM 219...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 ESM 219 Microbial Processes in the Environment 3: Cell function: genetics, protein synthesis, regulation Fall 2007 What is the genetic material? • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – Eukaryotes: in the nucleus (with a nuclear membrane) – Prokaryotes: • Chromosomal in the nucleoid (nuclear region, no membrane) • Plasmid is “extra-chromosomal” • Ribonucleic acid (RNA) – Messenger (mRNA): product of gene transcription (transcript) – Transfer (tRNA): transfers amino acid to growing protein during translation – Ribosomal (rRNA): decodes mRNA for translation DNA structure. Note that hydrogen bonds hold the two complementary strands together. Length is described in terms of the number of base pairs (bp or kbp or Mbp). 1 kbp = 0.34 μ m long 0.34 nm Concepts Genes encode traits Genotype = genetic makeup Phenotype = observable characteristics Genes are made of DNA which are: 1. Replicated during cell division (growth) 2. Expressed (transcribed to make proteins) 3. Transferred horizontally in bacteria 4. Repaired when mutated 1. Replication 1. When DNA is replicated…. . • A primer (starting nucleotide, i.e.base of ATG or C + deoxyribose + phosphate) is needed • A next nucleic acid (a polymer of nucleotides) is added to the 3’ end of the primer • DNA polymerase is the enzyme that joins the primer to the incoming nucleic acid • Growth of the DNA occurs from the 5’ to 3’ end.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 nucleoside NUCLEOTIDE = the monomer of nucleic acids DNA and RNA
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 6

Lecture_3_ESM219_07 - What is the genetic material? ESM 219...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online