Tong et al_ES&T_2007v41p2985

Tong et al_ES&T_2007v41p2985 - Environ. Sci....

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Impact of Fullerene (C60) on a Soil Microbial Community ZHONGHUA TONG, ² MARIANNE BISCHOFF, ² LORING NIES, BRUCE APPLEGATE, § AND RONALD F. TURCO* College of Agriculture - Laboratory for Soil Microbiology, School of Civil Engineering - Ecological Engineering Science Group, and Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 The nascent state of the nanoproduct industry calls for important early assessment of environmental impacts before significant releases have occurred. Clearly, the impact of manufactured nanomaterials on key soil processes must be addressed so that an unbiased discussion concerning the environmental consequences of nanotechnology can take place. In this study, soils were treated with either 1 μ gC 60 g - 1 soil in aqueous suspension (nC 60 ) or 1000 μ 60 g - 1 soil in granular form, a control containing equivalent tetrahydrofuran residues as generated during nC 60 formation process or water and incubated for up to 180 days. Treatment effects on soil respiration, both basal and glucose-induced, were evaluated. The effects on the soil microbial community size was evaluated using total phospholipid derived phosphate. The impact on community structure was evaluated using both fatty acid profiles and following extraction of total genomic DNA, by DGGE after PCR amplification of total genomic DNA using bacterial variable V3 region targeted primers. In addition, treatment affects on soil enzymatic activities for ± -glucosidase, acid- phosphatase, dehydrogenase, and urease were followed. Our observations show that the introduction of fullerene, as either C 60 or nC 60 , has little impact on the structure and function of the soil microbial community and microbial processes. Introduction Since being discovered in 1985 ( 1 ), buckminsterfullerene [(C 60 - I h )[5,6]fullerene] or C 60 has received considerable attention due to its unique characteristics and numerous potential applications. As the development of the nano- technology industry continues, large amounts of carbon nanoparticles, exemplified by C 60 , will be produced, used, and possibly released into the environment ( 2 , 3 ). Concerns over their potential environmental and health effects have been raised, and to date few studies on the environmental impact of manufactured nanomaterials have been published ( 4 ). Using C 60 as a model, we provide the first report on the impact of manufactured nanomaterials on the microbial aspects of a soil; this is a key first step in establishing an understanding of the environmental impact of C 60 . Fullerenes are an ideal model material for environmental studies as recent work has shown that C 60 has either harmful ( 5 , 6 ) or neutral biological consequences ( 7 - 10 ). The antibacterial activities of fullerenes have been investigated using water soluble fullerene derivatives ( 11 - 13 )ornC 60 (a water suspension), and these studies have shown C 60 , when prepared under specific low salt conditions, to be toxic to bacteria ( 14 - 16 ). Clearly the impact of manufactured na- nomaterials on microbial function in natural soil must be addressed. Manufactured nanomaterials could enter soil
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Tong et al_ES&T_2007v41p2985 - Environ. Sci....

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