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Unformatted text preview: Space flight alters bacterial gene expression and virulence and reveals a role for global regulator Hfq J. W. Wilson a,b , C. M. Ott c , K. Ho ner zu Bentrup b , R. Ramamurthy b , L. Quick a , S. Porwollik d , P. Cheng d , M. McClelland d , G. Tsaprailis e , T. Radabaugh e , A. Hunt e , D. Fernandez a , E. Richter a , M. Shah f , M. Kilcoyne f , L. Joshi f , M. Nelman-Gonzalez g , S. Hing h , M. Parra h , P. Dumars h , K. Norwood i , R. Bober i , J. Devich i , A. Ruggles i , C. Goulart j , M. Rupert j , L. Stodieck j , P. Stafford k , L. Catella i , M. J. Schurr b,l , K. Buchanan b,m , L. Morici b , J. McCracken b,n , P. Allen b,o , C. Baker-Coleman b,o , T. Hammond b,o , J. Vogel p , R. Nelson q , D. L. Pierson c , H. M. Stefanyshyn-Piper r , and C. A. Nickerson a,b,s a Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, f Center for Glycoscience Technology, k Center for Innovations in Medicine, and q Center for Combinatorial Sciences, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287; b Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112; c Habitability and Environmental Factors Division and r Astronaut Office, Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX 77058; d Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, San Diego, CA 92121; e Center for Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; g Wyle Laboratories, Houston, TX 77058; h Ames Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA 94035; i Space Life Sciences Laboratory, Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, FL 32920; j BioServe, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309; l University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262; m Oklahoma City University, Oklahoma City, OK 73106; n Section of General Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637; o Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System, New Orleans, LA 70112; and p RNA Biology Group, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, 10117 Berlin, Germany Edited by Arnold L. Demain, Drew University, Madison, NJ, and approved August 27, 2007 (received for review July 30, 2007) A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the space flight environ- ment has never been accomplished because of significant techno- logical and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of space flight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhi- murium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared with identical ground control cultures. Global microar- ray and proteomic analyses revealed that 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground-based microgravity culture model. Space flight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model...
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