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Warsaw Pact- This was a mutual defense treaty between the eight communist states which occurred between 1955 to 1991. This was in response to NATO from the western states. The goal of this treaty was to prevent the west from performing another large scale invasion into Soviet territory.This was rationalized by the fact during the prior two World Wars, Russia was hit with devastating causalities and much infrastructure damage. The Warsaw Pact provides the Soviet Union with a series of buffer states as a military barrier. Also, the Warsaw Pact essentially was the military complement to the CoMEcon. Palestinian Authority- This is now known as the Palestinian National Authority, which was established asthe administration for the West Bank and Gaza in 1994. During the 2006 Palestinian legislative elections, the Hamas party won and Ismail Haniyeh was elected prime minister. However, due to violence between the Fatah and Hamas parties in the Gaza Strip, the Palestinian Authority Chairman Mahmoud Abbas appointed a Fatah prime minister to replace the Hamas leader. However, the Gaza Strip did not recognize this action and the Hamas government continues to control the area. Currently the PNA only has authority over the West Bank. Just recently, the PNAwas recognized as a non-member state by the UN. Second Strike - This is a nation's ability to guarantee a response to a nuclear attack with a strong nuclear retaliation. The ability to perform a second strike is vital to insuring nuclear deterrence. Without second strike capability, enemies could attack with a powerful first strike and not worry about retaliation. One method for insuring retaliation is by having several methods of launching nuclear weapons, such as bomber aircrafts, ICBMs, and ballistic missile submarines. This prevents other nations from destroying second strike capability via strong first strike.MAD- This stands for Mutually Assured Destruction, which is a military strategy to avoid conflict. If the opposing parties have the equal ability to completely destroy each other, neither would be likely to engage in conflict. An example of this is the Cold War, in which both the USSR and the United States both possessed the ability to completely annihilate of each other; this resulted in neither nation directly attacking each other. In recent news, this is also one of the reasons that the Iran nuclear crisis is so important. It would be hard for the US to intervene in stopping an Iranian attack if it was known that they had nuclear capabilities.Bretton Woods- This was a system of rules for how the major industrial nations would manage their currencies established in 1946. This was the first time monetary order was established across nations, rather than each nation taking an anarchic approach. The goal of this system was to prevent another economic catastrophe like the Great Depression from occurring. To protect the security of the currencies of the nations damaged by WWII, the US dollar was made the reserve currency, making all other nations currencies pegged to it. In addition, Bretton Woods set up