5/19/2008ESM 266: Water1ESM 266:ESM 266: WaterWater1Jeff DozierEarth, the water planet(approx(approx. 1.4 x 10. 1.4 x 109km3, 74% of surface)•Oceans97.2%•Ice2.0•Groundwater - deep (750-4000m)0.4•Groundwatershallow (<750m)0 32Groundwater –shallow (<750m)0.3•Lakes0.01•Soil0.005•Atmosphere0.001•Rivers0.0001•Biosphere0.00004Read: Black, P.E. On the critical nature of “useless” resources; Water Resources Bulletin(1995)Synoptic view from remote sensingEarth’s gravity anomalyGeostationary hemispheric coverage Earth s gravity anomalyGeostationary, hemispheric coverage Ground-based observations since 1957Antarctic satellite coverageNew Pictures EmergeStommel 1965: Multiple current hypothesis1stsatellite 1970s: Single currentInternal tide information 1975Internal tides from altimetryComponents of reflectance from waterTotal radiance, (Lt) recorded by a remote sensing system over water is a function of the electromagnetic energy Lb= bottom reflectancereceived from:Lp= atmospheric path radianceLs= free-surface layer reflectanceLv= subsurface volumetric reflectanceAbsorptionandscattering inpure water
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