ESM202Lecture_Sulfur_2008

ESM202Lecture_Sulfur_2008 - Sulfur: S ESM 202 Ubiquitous...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 1 ESM 202 Sulfur in the Environment 2 Sulfur: S ± Ubiquitous and large natural cycle ± 13 th to 16 th most abundant element on Earth ± Major role sequestering metals ± Important for many biological processes involving redox reactions ± Environmental issues ± Acid rain ± Acid mine drainage ± Environmental solutions: have altered S production immensely! ± Scrub SO 2 from emissions ± Strip H 2 S from natural gas 3 Demand and production “ As the 21 st century begins, sulfur recovered for environmental reasons is the predominant source of sulfur worldwide. In fact, in the United States, environmental sulfur meets all domestic demand.” Ober. 1998. USDI/ USGS: Open Report 02-298 4 Sulfur Reservoirs Reservoir Mass (10 18 g) Atmosphere 2.8x 10 -6 Seawater 1280 Deep oceanic rocks 2400 9 x 10 -3 Sedimentary rocks Shales 4970 Evaporites 2470 Organic reservoir Terrestrial plants 0.6 x 10 -3 Marine plants 0.024 x 10 -3 Dead organic matter 5.0 x 10 -3
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 5 Metal Sulfides e.g. solubility product for FeS = 10 -18.1 pK so FeS(s) CdS(s) PbS(s) CuS(s) 18.1 27.0 27.5 36.1 ZnS(s) 24.7 pyrite sphalerite chalcocite galena greenockite 6 Evaporites CaSO 4 2H 2 O Ca 2+ + SO 4 2- + 2H 2 O K sp, 25C = [Ca 2+ ] [SO 4 2- ] 2.63 E-5 gypsum anhydrite 8 Sulfur Species ± S 0 = elemental sulfur ± S -2 = sulfide (e.g. in H 2 S, FeS) ± S 2 O 3 2- = thiosulfate (S +2 ) ± SO 2 = sulfur dioxide (S +4 ) ± SO 3 2- = sulfite (S +4 ) ± SO 4 2- = sulfate (H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid, FeSO 4 ; S +6 ) ± Organic forms ± Amino acids and thus proteins ± sulfhydryl or thiol group= R-SH ± COS= carbonyl sulfide (O=C=S); gas ± DMS = dimethylsulfide (CH 3 ) 2 S ± DMSO = dimethylsulfoxide (CH 3 ) 2 SO; solvent ± Methanthiol (methyl mercaptan) = CH 3 SH ± Carbon disulfide = CS 2 ± DMDS =dimethyldisulfide (CH 3 ) 2 S 2 bold = major forms in nature
Background image of page 2
3 9 Macromolecules (major) Cysteine, a polar amino acid Methionine, a nonpolar amino acid Glutathione, an antioxidant 10 DMS: dimethyl sulfide ± Globally most abundant organic S compound ± Degradation of dimethylsulfonioproprionate (marine algae osmolyte) ± DMS(g) CH 3 SO 3 - SO 2 SO 4 2- ± Anoxic environments ± (CH 3 ) 2 S CH 4 and H 2 S ± Energy source (photo- and chemotrophs) DMSO ± DMSO (e- acceptor) DMS λ λ λ methanogenesis 11 Global Sulfur Balance * Process is partly or solely due to microbial action SO 4 2- = 2.65 mg/g H 2 O 12 Anthropogenic Sulfur ± Emissions to Atmosphere from Fossil Fuel Burning and Metal Smelting ± Effluents (to water) from chemical industry and mining ± Emissions to Soils that are transported to lakes and rivers ± TOTAL Anthropogenic Tg S/yr 95-115 30 25-35 150-180 Tg = teragram = 10 12 g
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
13 Flows of sulfur in the US (2000). fluoroapatite
Background image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 16

ESM202Lecture_Sulfur_2008 - Sulfur: S ESM 202 Ubiquitous...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online