PlanetaryHydrology_2007 - 10/29/2002 Earth System Science...

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10/29/2002 ESM 203 - Planetary hydrology 1 ESM 203: Planetary Hydrology 1 Fall 2007 Earth System Science ± Earth consists of system components ± “Solid” planet ± Atmosphere ± Ocean 2 ± Cryosphere ± Hydrosphere ± Continental “near surface” (pedosphere and biosphere) ± “Technosphere” Earth System Hydrology ± Planetary hydrologic processes ± Land-atmosphere interactions modulated by plants and soils 3 ± Subterranean water ± The hydrologic role of snow and ice ± Water Supplies Hydrologic Cycle The continual transfer of water, in various phases, among reservoirs (stores) in the 4 atmosphere, ocean, and continents Earth System: physical climate and biogeochemical systems, coupled by the hydrologic cycle 5 Asrar and Dozier The hydrologic cycle is driven by … ± Solar energy Exchanges of this energy within the Earth system results in evaporation/condensation, freezing/thawing, changes of density ± Internal Earth energy (residual heat and radioactivity) 6 ± Locally near surface and more extensively at great depth, geothermal heat causes density changes and convection in groundwater ± Gravity ± Wind (pressure gradients caused by gravity) ± Rivers/glaciers flowing downhill ± Groundwater moving because of potential energy gradients in the water
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10/29/2002 ESM 203 - Planetary hydrology 2 Water on Earth (approx. 1.4 x 10 9 km 3 ) ± Oceans 97.2% ± Ice 2.0 ± Groundwater - deep (750-4000m) 0.4 ± Groundwater shallow (<750m 03 7 Groundwater –shallow (<750m) 0.3 ± Lakes 0.01 ± Soil 0.005 ± Atmosphere 0.001 ± Rivers 0.0001 ± Biosphere 0.00004 Read: Black, P.E. On the critical nature of “useless” resources; Water Resources Bulletin (1995) Never at Rest …. ± Evaporation from the ocean, precipitation onto the ocean, transfer of a portion over continents ± Precipitation on continents (rain, snowfall, snowpack storage and meltwater release) Water moves continually between the reservoirs by a number of processes: 8 ± Evaporation from continents (if it occurs directly from a water surface or soil surface), evapotranspiration if the evaporation is modulated by plant processes. ± Infiltration ± Percolation through soils and rocks ± Streamflow (stormflow and baseflow); flow through lakes ± Flow through the ocean ± Evaporation from the ocean …. . etc., etc. Energy (and its spatial variability) is the key to the continual transfer of water mass Fluxes between stores Note that the ocean area is about twice the land area; these numbers are in volumes per unit area of surface) Evaporation from ocean 117 cm/yr Precipitation onto ocean 107 cm/yr Precipitation onto land 74 cm/yr Evaporation from land 49 cm/y 9 49 cm/yr Runoff from land 25 cm/yr Over the ocean, E > P Over land, P > E. Suggests that the storage of water on land causes some kind of “resistance” to evaporation, so that some of the precipitated water “escapes” evaporation
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This note was uploaded on 08/06/2008 for the course ESM 203 taught by Professor Dozier,dunne during the Fall '07 term at UCSB.

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PlanetaryHydrology_2007 - 10/29/2002 Earth System Science...

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