Final Exam study guide - ANTHROPOLOGY FINAL STUDY GUIDE...

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ANTHROPOLOGY FINAL STUDY GUIDECHAPTER 8 – POLITICAL SYSTEMS – 15 questions -Definition of the political as social political organizationoThe exercise of power and the regulation of relations among groups and their representatives. Political regulation includes such processes as decision making, dispute management, and conflict resolution. The study of political regulation draws our attention to those who make decisions and resolve conflicts. -Foraging bands (nature of politics)oModern hunter-gatherers are today’s remnants of foraging band societies. Maintain strong ties with sociopolitical groups outside the band – makes them different from Stone Age hunter gatherers. Modern foragers live in nation-states and in interlinked worldEx. The pygmies of Congo shared a social world and economic exchanges with their neighbors who are cultivators. All foragers nowtrade with food producers and most contemporary hunter-gatherers rely on governments and on missionaries for at least part of what they consume-Politics of horticultural villagesoNo class structure or formal government of their own. No sure means of enforcing political decisions. The main regulatory officials are village heads, “big men,” descent-group leaders, village councils, and leaders of pantribal associations. All these figures and groups have limited authority.oLike foragers, horticulturists tend to be egalitarian, although some have marked gender stratification: an unequal distribution of resources, power, prestige, and personal freedom between men and women. Horticultural villages usually are small, with low population density and open access to strategic resources. Age, gender, and personal traits determine how muchrespect people receive and how much support they get from others. Egalitarianism diminishes, however, as village size and population densityincrease. Horticultural villages usually have headmen – rarely, if ever, headwomen. -Definition of conflict resolutionoHow to settle disputes. Includes cultural rules or norms about proper and improper behavior. Norms are cultural standards or guidelines that enableindividuals to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate behaviorin a given society. While rules and norms are cultural universals, only state societies, those with established governments, have laws that are formulated, proclaimed, and enforced.-Village head vs. Big man oVillage Head – (always a man). His authority is severely limited. If he wants something done, he must lead by example and persuasion. Can’t issue orders. He can only persuade, harangue, and try to influence public opinion. The headman may be called on as a mediator who listens to bothsides. Can give opinion and advice. Can’t impose punishments. Expected

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