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ESM202Lecture02_2008

ESM202Lecture02_2008 - ESM 202 Understanding Water Quality...

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1 ESM 202 Understanding Water Quality Parameters
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2 Liquid water 71% of Earth’s surface 97% of that is saltwater 50 to 90% of living organisms  …… Huge demand; supply concerns Irrigation can use 90% Yet most (>90%) sewage untreated
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3 Regulated Contaminants Inorganics: aluminum, fluoride Organics: dichloromethane Radioisotopes: uranium Lead, copper Microbial contaminants (viruses, bacteria) Color Chloride Odor TDS turbidity http://www.goletawater.com/waterquality/pdf/Goleta_CCR_v2_6_6_07.pdf
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4 Treatment for Potable Water
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5 Management Why Water Quality Matters  Human Health  Sustainable management  Restoration  Remediation
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6 source: http://protectingwater.com/index.html
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7 Water Quality Parameters Dissolved Oxygen Temperature Biochemical Oxygen  Demand Nutrients: N & P Minerals: Anions &  Cations Trace Elements Toxic Organic  Compounds Coliform Bacteria,  other Microbes,  Viruses Solids (TDS, SS) Alkalinity, pH Hardness Turbidity Color Taste and Odor
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8 Dissolved Oxygen (DO) O 2 (gas) O 2 (aq)
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Increasing Temp Increasing Salinity High DO Low DO
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10 Basic Concepts in Water Chemistry
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11 Basic Concepts Equilibrium A  +  B   C + D K =  [C] [D] [A] [B] = Products Reactants  Thermodynamic equilibrium  Reversible vs. irreversible
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12 Basic Concepts Concentration in aqueous or solid  systems [HCO 3 - ] = mol / L  = M Convert from mol/L to g/L using  the Molecular Weight (MW), g/mol Concentration in gas phase:       P CO2  = atm
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13 Dissolution O 2  dissolution in water O 2 (aq)        O 2 (g) 663 atm . L/mol       0.209 atm 3.15 x 10 -4  mol/L 10.07 x 10 -3  g/L 32.00 g/mol  = 0.000315 mol/L 10.07 mg/L 32.00 g/mol = K H,O2  =  [O 2 (aq)] P O2 =
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14 Dissolution CO 2  dissolution in water: CO 2 (aq) = CO 2 (g) K H  =  [CO 2 (aq)] = 26.9 atm L/   mol P CO2
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15 Oxygen Demand
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16 Oxygen Demand Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
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