ESM202Lecture Ecotox 2008

ESM202Lecture Ecotox 2008 - ESM 202 Assessing the Effects...

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  1 ESM 202 Assessing the Effects  of Chemicals on  Ecosystems
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    Human vs. Ecotoxicology Human Toxicology Deals with acute  (e.g. occupational  health) and chronic  (e.g. cancer, liver  damage) human  health issues Focus on individuals Goal: acceptable risk  to human receptors Ecotoxicology Deals with effects on  all other organisms,  including acute and  chronic effects Focus on populations Goal: minimize loss  of biota and  ecosystem integrity
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    Effect of Chemicals
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    Methods Toxicity Tests/Bioassays Acute Chronic Field Assessments/Surveys Bioaccumulation Studies Biomarkers Microcosm & Mesocosm Studies
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    Toxicity Tests Provide a direct measure of biological uptake  of the toxicants Establish link between site contamination and  adverse ecological effects May provide info on synergistic or  antagonistic interactions among chemicals Direct extrapolation of lab to field should be  carefully evaluated May do an  in situ  toxicity test under field  conditions
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    Toxicity Tests Toxicity tests can be used for both aquatic  and terrestrial systems Aquatic tests are more developed Endpoints are mortality, growth and/or  reproduction Vertebrates Rodents Fish Birds
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    Toxicity Tests Invertebrates Insects Amphipods (crustacea related to shrimp and krill) Plankton Microbes Luminescent bacteria ( Microtox ) Plants Aquatic or terrestrial Vascular or non-vascular
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    Toxicity Tests Environmental Matrices Water freshwater estuarine/marine Sediments freshwater estuarine/marine Soils Used to develop Water Quality Criteria  (WQC) for different uses
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    Toxicity Tests/Bioassays Standardized methods EPA US Army Corps of Engineers ASTM Org. of Economic Cooperation and Development  (OECD) Aquatic Toxicity tests for: fish invertebrates algae
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    Acute Aquatic Toxicity Tests Most frequently used (short = less expensive) Relates dose (C w  x time of exposure) to time  of death for a particular test organism
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This note was uploaded on 08/06/2008 for the course ESM 202 taught by Professor Keller during the Winter '08 term at UCSB.

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ESM202Lecture Ecotox 2008 - ESM 202 Assessing the Effects...

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