ESM202Lecture_Sulfur_2008

ESM202Lecture_Sulfur_2008 - ESM 202 Sulfur in the...

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1 ESM 202 Sulfur in the Environment
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2 Sulfur: S Ubiquitous and large natural cycle 13 th  to 16 th  most abundant element on Earth Major role sequestering metals Important for many biological processes involving  redox reactions Environmental issues Acid rain Acid mine drainage Environmental solutions: have altered S production  immensely! Scrub SO 2  from emissions Strip H 2 S from natural gas
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3 Demand and production “ As the 21 st  century begins, sulfur  recovered for environmental reasons is  the predominant source of sulfur  worldwide.  In fact, in the United States,  environmental sulfur meets all domestic  demand.” Ober. 1998. USDI/ USGS: Open Report 02-298
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4 Sulfur Reservoirs   Reservoir  Mass (10 18  g) Atmosphere 2.8x 10 -6 Seawater 1280 Deep oceanic rocks 2400 9 x 10 -3 Sedimentary rocks Shales  4970 Evaporites 2470 Organic reservoir Terrestrial plants  0.6 x 10 -3 Marine plants 0.024 x 10 -3 Dead organic matter 5.0 x 10 -3
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5 Metal Sulfides e.g. solubility product for FeS = 10 -18.1 pK so FeS(s) CdS(s) PbS(s) CuS(s) 18.1 27.0 27.5 36.1 ZnS(s) 24.7 pyrite sphalerite chalcocite galena greenockite
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6 Evaporites CaSO 4 2H 2 O↔ Ca 2+ + SO 4 2- + 2H 2 O K sp, 25C = [Ca 2+ ] [SO 4 2- ] ≈ 2.63 E-5 gypsum anhydrite
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8 Sulfur Species S 0  = elemental sulfur S -2  = sulfide (e.g. in H 2 S, FeS) S 2 O 3 2-  = thiosulfate (S +2 ) SO 2  = sulfur dioxide (S +4 ) SO 3 2-  = sulfite (S +4 ) SO 4 2-  = sulfate (H 2 SO 4  sulfuric acid, FeSO 4 ; S +6 ) Organic forms Amino acids and thus proteins sulfhydryl or thiol group= R-SH COS= carbonyl sulfide (O=C=S); gas DMS = dimethylsulfide (CH 3 ) 2 S DMSO = dimethylsulfoxide (CH 3 ) 2 SO; solvent Methanthiol (methyl mercaptan) = CH 3 SH Carbon disulfide = CS 2 DMDS =dimethyldisulfide (CH 3 ) 2 S 2 bold = major forms in nature
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9 Macromolecules (major) Cysteine, a polar amino acid Methionine, a nonpolar amino acid Glutathione, an antioxidant
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10 DMS: dimethyl sulfide Globally most abundant organic S compound Degradation of dimethylsulfonioproprionate  (marine algae osmolyte) DMS(g) CH 3 SO 3 -    SO 2    SO 4 2- Anoxic environments (CH 3 ) 2 S              CH 4  and H 2 S Energy source (photo- and chemotrophs)   DMSO DMSO (e- acceptor)   DMS λ λ λ methanogenesis
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11 Global Sulfur Balance * Process is partly or solely due to microbial action SO 4 2- = 2.65 mg/g H 2 O
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12 Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions to Atmosphere from  Fossil Fuel Burning and Metal  Smelting Effluents (to water) from chemical  industry and mining Emissions to Soils that are  transported to lakes and rivers TOTAL Anthropogenic Tg S/yr 95-115 30 25-35 150-180 Tg = teragram = 10 12  g
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fluoroapatite
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This note was uploaded on 08/06/2008 for the course ESM 202 taught by Professor Keller during the Winter '08 term at UCSB.

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ESM202Lecture_Sulfur_2008 - ESM 202 Sulfur in the...

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