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esm223_16_Reading_IAEA_isotopic_database

esm223_16_Reading_IAEA_isotopic_database - EDS TRANSACTIONS...

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Unformatted text preview: EDS. TRANSACTIONS. AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION VOLUME 88 NUMBER 49 4 DECEMBER 2007 New Capabilities for Studies Using Isotopes in the Water Cycle The characterization anti quantification of hydrological fluxes within components of the water cycle and across interfaces (e.g.. atmosphere/land surface. aquifer/river. soili plant) are critical for assessing and managing water resources and for understanding the impacts oi climate change and variability on the hydrological cycle. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. and radioactive isotopes such as tritium and carbon-l4. pro- vide unique insights into hydrological and climatic processes at local. regional. and global scales, including the role of ground- water in rivers and lakes. groundwater recharge rates. and sources and recycling rates of atmospheric moisture [Aggarwai et at, 2005; Got. 1996; Kendall and McDon- nell. 1998]. Isotopes also provide critical insights into understanding feedbacks and interactions between physical and biologi- cal processes (e.g.. ecohydrology), The international Atomic Energy Agency (MBA) and the World Meteorological Orga- nization (WMO) have operated a global network of isotopes in precipitation (GNIP) for over 45 years. and data from this net- work (deuterium. oxygen-18. and tritium— 52H. 3‘30. and 31-!) have been essential lor many hydrological investigations. At pres- ent. the GNlP database contains more than 110.000 isotope records from over 800 sta- tions across the world. from 1960 to 2006. 8v P. K. AooARwrtL. O. ALDUCi-iov. L. ARAGUAs ARAGUAs. S. DOGRAMACI, G. KATZLBERGER. K. KRJZ. K. M. KULKARNI. T. KURTI‘AS. B. D. NEWMAN. AND A. PUCHER The value of GNIP data continues to increase far beyond their traditional use in hydrol- ogy. with the data now also being used to address a wide range of problems related to atmospheric circulation, climate change. ecology. food source certification. and foren- sics. Efforts to establish a global network for monitoring isotopes in water vapor tlAEA Moisture isotopes in the Biosphere and Atmo- sphere. MlBA) arid in river discharge (Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers. GNIR") are in their infancy. Presently. MIBA has about 1000 isotope records and GNIR has nearly 5000 records. in addition. the IAEA has assisted countries in Asia. Africa. Latin America. and Eastern Europe in using isotopes to assess and manage their surface and ground- water resources. Some of the isotope data from these studies have been published in research papers. but most of the groundwater isotope data have not been easily available and have not been synthesized and evaluated on a regional or continental scale. A new, geographic information system (GIS)-based. user—friendly. integrated. and computer-assisted mapping environment— the Water Isotope System for Data Analysis. Visualization. and Elecuonic Retrieva (wom— has been developed for disseminating iso- tope data from the lAEAV. New functionalities allow users to better integrate spatial and/or temporal components into their investiga- tions. In addition. a new gridded data set for isotopes in precipitation has been developed and the groundwater isotope data from Africa have been compiled as an atlas. in this arti- cle. we describe these tools and data sets that are now available through the lAEA Water . "ll-w ' v (is! , .‘t‘ v v.53». 1.7 ,_ - “M '64‘1. M . ‘ .i o ‘ ‘ L“ H‘ .- t w 5‘80 (Wan) - «an --zs--2a --2o--m __ __ - - -30 —-zs - -24 ~22 [Elli]! ~18 ~16 g-rsv-u - .23 --2s - «22 --20 L: Fig i. Global-scale interpolation of long-term annual average 5’30 (960) in precrpr'totion. Resources Programme Web site (http:i/www .iaea.orglwaterl). Data Retrieval and Presentation in WISER WISER. built as a collaborative project of the [ABA and the University of Vienna. is a full-fledged. online information system, avail- able throughout the world without any limi- tations in terms of place, time. or proprie- tary issues. The system is accessible through ., VJ,V,W, v- __,-__._._ _._. any lntemet browser Without the need for local software installation. The mapping application was developed with indepen— dent modules to allow flexible interfaces between all parts of the system. rather than having to strictly define every modulg on a product or vendor basis. The system devel— opment objectives included high-quality ‘"‘D . cartographic representation. processing of topographic and thematic data. interactive manipulation. and visualization of data. Data within WlSER are visualized car- tographically. The desired output can be depicted as thematic maps. animated maps. or diagrams; and the implementation of three-dimensional visualizations and ani- mations is planned. Various query. explora- tion. and analysis tools are included to lead the user toward customized results. The Mn:-I finunfi— In... llf'l'L‘L‘D n-nnnn.n ham “HA main screen for WiSER presents two mod- ules: one for direct data downloads (includ- ing enhanced statistical treatments) and the other for mapping. The mapping mod- ule includes a reference map. a toolbar for navigation, and a list of various layers. such as GNIP stations. cities. topography. lakes, major rivers. and so forth. These items offer the user a standardized. easyvto-use system interface. Data organization utilizes spatial data layers. and each of the layers can be dynamically activated and deactivated by the user through the layer listing. Besides simple layer visualization. a num- ber of analysis iunctionalities for expert use also have been included. Feature grouping or classifying the data by attribute values such as projects. countries. sample types. and so forth is possible. as is the creation of plots. For the creation of plots. WISER offers either a time-based plot or a scatterplot. All visualizations can be saved as images or as high-quality PDFs for easy integration in external documents or presentations. Representation and interpolation of (IMF Data Spatial representations of GNIP data so far have been limited to those for stable isotopes [e.g.. [sit-IA, 200]: Bowen and Rene- rrough. 2003]. WISER includes new spatial interpolations based on long-term monthly averages of l96i-2001 data and using Gan- din‘s optimal interpolation method {Gondim 1965]. These interpolations. developed in collaboration with the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological information-World Data Center, Obninsk. Russia (RlHMC). can be used to produce global- and continental- scale maps of annual and monthly average precipitation values for 52H. 5'30. and 3H. as well as for meteorological data. Although researchers have been able to retrieve GNIP data on the Internet for many years. the interface has been static and lim- ited to basic data. Users can now obtain interpolated values on a 1" x 1" grid for long- term monthly averages of 82H and 6’80 and average monthly values for 3H. A global-scale Isotopes cent. on page 538 ————‘——————*———————_ l-n-I EOS Isotopes cont. from page 53? interpolation of longterm average 5150 val- ues of precipitation is shown in Figure l. The interpolation clearly shows how lati— tude (among other factors) affects isotope compositions. Atlas of Isotope Hydrology: Africa The lAEA is producing a series of continental-scale atlases using isotope data from the lAEA's technical cooperation proj- ects from more than 100 countries. Most of these projects were conducted in developing countries where data often are scarce in the literature. The first atlas focuses on Africa. and one for Latin America is under prepara~ tion. The atlases are intended as guides for locating and obtaining isotope data from a particular continent. region. or country and as educational resources. The objective of the underlying data- base—named Isotopes in Groundwater, Lakes, Springs. and Streams. or [GLASS—is to provide access to isotope data from the LARA-supported technical cooperation proj- ects conducted on local or regional scales. The lGLASS contains nearly 25,000 isotope records from Africa. Latin America. and Europe from 1960 to 2005. The Africa atlas alone contains data from more than 10,000 isotope measurements of groundwaters and surface waters. As an example. the distributions of MC and 5‘80 in deep groundwater in north- ern Africa are shown in Figure 2. The ”C data show the dominance of relatively old groundwater (mostly with ages in excess of about 10.000 years) in the northern African region. including major transboundary sys- tems such as the Nubian aquifer between Egypt, Libya. Chad, and Sudan. The low (most negative) 3130 values indicate that recharge in many parts of northern Airica occurred mainly under more pluvial/cooler climate conditions than what exist today. For each country included in the atlas. a digital elevation map is provided that shows major water bodies. locations of GNIP sta- tions. and IAEA study areas. Summary pages for each project include a higher-resolution map of the study area as well as isotope plots and tables oi statistical treatments of 6180 and 52H data. average annual precipita- tion and air temperature. tritium values, and groundwater ”C contents. The Need for More Partners and Monitoring Stations WISER includes data from global net- works (GNIP. GNIR. MIBA). agency technical cooperation projects and associated isotope atlases (IGLASS). and the new 1” x 1D GNIP interpolations. Many of the data come from voluntary contributions from many network partners. GNIP is the most mature and com- prehensive of the four lAEA isotope-monitoring networks. However. GNIP spatial coverage is not uniform. and many areas still have inad- equate coverage. GNIR and MlBA are in their infancy; there are few established long-term monitoring sites and data are scant. Thus, there is a clear need for additional long'term isotope-monitoring sites to improve global coverage for all types and phases of water. The IAEA is actively looking for new part- ners who are willing to establish long-term monitoring stations. Although the agency cannot fully fund such efforts directly. it can work with institutions that are commit- ted to building monitoring stations by sup- plying information on how to properly set up and maintain collection systems. and in some instances the agency can provide sample containers and even analytical sup- port. The agency also has a policy of work- ing with contributing institutions to establish a data embargo period so that investiga' tors can publish their results prior to open release in WISER. Individuals interested in participating in any of the networks by con- tributing data from existing or future stations are encouraged to contact the IAEA Water Resources Programme by e—mail at [email protected] i'aeaorg. References Aggarwal. P.. J. Eat, and K. Froehlich (Eds) (2005). Isotopes in the Water Cycle. Springer. Dordrecht. Netherlands. Bowen. G. J.. and J. Revenaugh (2003), Interpolat- ing the isotopic composition of modern meteoric precipitation. Water Resoui: Res, 3900). 1299, doi:10.1029/2003WR002086. Gandin. L. S. (1963), ObjectiueAnolysls of Meteoro— logical Fields (in Russian). 242 pp., Gidrometeo- rol. lzdatel‘stvo. St. Fetersburg, Russia. (English translation. lsr. Program for Sci. Transl.. Jerusa- lem. 1965). 3. Cat. .l. {1996). Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the hydrologic cycle. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 24, 225—252. International Atomic Energy Agency (2001). GNIP maps and animations. Vienna. (Available at http:llwww.iaea.orglwater) Kendall. C.. and J. J. McDonnell (Eds) (1998), Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology 839 pp.. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Author Information Pradeep KAggarwaleotope Hydrology Section. International Atomic Energy Agency OHSLAEA). Vienna; E—mail: [email protected]; Oleg Alduchov, Research Institute of Hydrometeorologica] Infor- mation—World Data Center. Obninsk. Russia; Luis Aragués Aragués and Shawan Dogarnaci, IHS-IAEA; Gemot Katzlberger and Kare] Kriz. Department of Geography and Regional Research.University of Vienna. Austria: Kshitij M. Kulkami,Tflrker Kurttas. and Brent D. Newman. lHS-IAEA; and Alexander Fucher. Department of Geography and Regional ReseardLUniversity olVienna. VOLUME 83 NUMBER 49 4 DECEMBEHZUUT Fig. 2. Carbon-I4 (percent modem carbon) and ’80 (950) in deem groundwater of nomfiem Akita. ...
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