esm223_05_Other_Reading_Cross-Borehole_Geophysics

esm223_05_Other_Reading_Cross-Borehole_Geophysics -...

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HYDROGEOPHYSICS: Cross-borehole ground penetrating radar Cross-borehole electrical resistance tomography Part 1: The two methods Description and some theory Part 2: Utility of the methods Part 3: Results
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PART 1: THE METHODS
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Cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) Tx Rx direct signals Further development of GPR reflection profiling Records the transmission of EM signal The exact distance is known The dielectric properties of subsurface can be found
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Console Receiver Transmitter Optical cables Battery Remote Connected to a computer
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Zero Offset Profile Multiple Offset Gain 2D tomography 1D profile
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Travel time, t
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0 20 40 60 80 100 120 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Time in ns Amplitude Trace 1 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 -1000 -900 -800 -700 -600 -500 Time in ns Amplitude Zoom Trace 1 l = Distance v = Velocity of EM wave c = Velocity of wave in air (0.3m/ns) ε = Dielectric constant
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Cross-borehole electrical resistance tomography (ERT) Further development of electrical profiling and sounding Ohm’s law: V=RI Resistivity = F × V/I Better and more uniform resolution of the subsurface resistivity
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Cross-borehole dipoles Current electrodes Potential electrodes 3D image 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .
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