BAB_1 - IDE IDE DASAR MEKANIKA KUANTUM A Radiasi Benda...

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IDE - IDE DASAR MEKANIKA KUANTUM A. Radiasi Benda Hitam 1. Hasil-Hasil Empiris Gambar 1.2 Grafik fungsi radiasi spektral benda hitam sempurna a. Hukum Stefan Hukum Stefan dapat dituliskan sebagai e total = 4 0 T df e f (1.3) , : adalah tetapan Stefan Bolztmann sebesar 5,67 x 10 -8 watt/m 2 K 4 dan T yaitu suhu mutlak.
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4 . . T a e total . (1.4) b. Hukum Pergeseran Wien : o maks mK x T 3 10 898 , 2 (1.7) 2. Usaha-Usaha Penjelasan Teoritis Rayleigh dan Jeans 3 2 ) 8 ( ) ( c KT T  (1.8) dengan adalah rapat energi dan υ adalah frekuensi. Bila dibuat grafik hubungan antara ) ( T terhadap υ maka diperoleh grafik sesuai gambar 1.3. Gambar 1.3 Grafik fungsi rapat energi berdasarkan teori (Rayleigh dan Jeans) dan hasil eksperimen Postulat Planck Untuk menjelaskan radiasi termal, Planck membuat pemisalan sebagai berikut: a. Energi yang dapat dimiliki oleh osilator tidak kontinu melainkan berharga diskrit (Quantization of energy) yaitu kelipatan dari h υ ) ( nhv dengan h ialah konstanta Planck dan υ adalah frekuensi getaran. b. Sebaran energi osilator menganut distribusi bolztmann yaitu bahwa kebolehjadian suatu osilator mempunyai energi antara dan ( + d ) adalah : P( ) d = (e - /KT )/KT d (1.9)
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~ 0 / ~ 0 / n KT nhv h KT nhv KT e nhv KT e (1.10) misalkan = hv/KT , maka energi rata-rata menjadi KT e ne n n n n ~ 0 ~ 0 . (1.11)
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