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Singh, MehrHistory 121E Professor JacobyMehr Singh 204477629Take Home MidtermSection I1.CompiègneThe Armistice of 1918 between the Allies and Germany that ended the first world war was signed in the Forest of Compiegne in France. The region is of great historical significance as it not only came to signify Germany’s defeat during the first world war but was also deliberately used again by Adolf Hitler as the site for another armistice in 1940 between Germany and France, where France was the side making concessions. Compiegne therefore has come to symbolize defeat and surrender between Allied powers and Germany in the context of World WarI and II. 2.George GroszGeorg Grosz was a German who gained prominence during the Weimar republic for his caricatures and satires of a decaying German society. His paintings depict his own, and a more general sense, of disillusionment from the nationalist and glorified ideals of war and cynicism towards the government and military. He was a part of the broader Berlin Dada group and a pioneer of the New Objectivity movement that gave rise to a new form of art that deviated from the previous romanticist and expressionist as a reaction to the horrors of war and evils of society. 3.Hall of MirrorsA room in the Palace of Versailles where George Clemenceau chose to sign the Treaty of Versailles, which included the Germany’s war guilt clause. In 1871 this was also the room where the proclamation of the Kaiser emperor took place. The memory of the Kaiser empire which was 1
Singh, Mehra great symbol of German pride and victory at the time was now being tarnished with the defeat and surrender of the German nation, making it a moment of greater humiliation for the German individual. 4.Brest-LitovskA peace treaty signed in march 1918 between the new Bolshevik government in Russia and the Central Powers (predominantly Germany) that officially ended Russia’s involvement in the war. The treaty was deemed extremely harsh especially in terms of territorial concessions which madeit a ground for justifying the harshness of the Treaty of Versailles, which the Allied powers believed was relatively less severe. Nonetheless, the treaty was annulled in November 1918 when Germany lost the war and as a result they had to concede all of their territorial gains. 5.Shandong Shandong is an eastern province in China that came under much debate under Article 156 of the Treaty of Versailles which transferred Imperial Germany’s concessions in that region to Japanesecontrol instead of Chinese sovereignty. In light of Woodrow Wilson’s fourteen points and Self-determination this provision came as shocking and unjust to the Chinese people, leading to rise of nationalist sentiments (May Fourth Movement) in China. The Chinese feel a large sense of western betrayal and disillusionment with Wilson’s idealism and refuse to sign the treaty; anotherreminder of Wilson’s failures during the peacemaking process.